In this first article, I read sixty pages, and the keywords used to find the articles include acute kidney injury and acute renal failure. This information is relevant in nursing since it informs the clinicians on the difference between ARF and AKI. I chose it because it describes the reasons and the studies behind the name’s change from ARF to AKI. The reading explores the variances between the two terms and bases as to why they should not be used interchangeably.
ARF was used to point to the simple complication of the illness of the patient, which denoted that the kidney had failed. Attention was given to the most severe form of impairment and disregarded to the mild and moderate kidney malfunction forms (Dirkes, 2016). AKI means that the above problem manifests a wide range of disorders that suddenly affect the kidney, which is usually reversible. AKI shows that the injury is occurring and can be classified into mild, moderate, and severe.
Small changes in the urine output and creatinine levels have significant consequences on both the renal and other associated systems. AKI causes a rise in creatinine levels and reduces urine output due to decreased glomerular filtration rate. This effect reduces the excretion of toxins and other waste products in the body, which makes them accumulate in the bloodstream (Levey & James, 2017). AKI also alters the acid-base balance and causes electrolyte imbalances in the body.
This reading has made me realize that the term ARF was less inclusive and focused on the severe category of the failure, while AKI looks at any acute change in kidney function. I have learned that the causes of reduced kidney function are multifactorial. This will improve my history by taking in all patients to capture the etiologies of the disease. It has also enlightened me to view AKI as a condition that can cause multisystem dysfunction.
I read twenty pages of this content, and the keywords used to search the article include pelvic disorders, overactive bladder, and lower urinary tract infection. I chose this editorial because it informs of the urological conditions associated with lower tract infections. Complications of pelvic disorders and bladder are prevalent in the hospital where I do my clinical work. This information will increase my knowledge of these conditions and inform my nursing care. The report highlights the challenges faced in managing pelvic and bladders complications and the areas for further studies. The states selected include overactive bladder, post-prostatectomy incontinence, bladder pain syndrome, urogynecology, and care of special populations such as multiple sclerosis.
An overactive bladder can cause discomfort, insomnia at night, and low self-esteem. It is caused by a disturbance in the nerves that supply the bladder’s sphincter muscles (Herschorn, 2013). In a bedridden patient, overactive bladder and post-prostatectomy incontinence can alter the skin integrity and cause bed sores which are avenues for infection, hence septicemia. Furthermore, septicemia is one of the causes of AKI, which causes electrolyte abnormalities. Bladder pain and concomitant voiding problems have psychological effects on the patients (Irwin, 2019). Thus, this article gives me insight into the gaps present in the research on the challenges faced in managing these conditions. It helps me think broadly about the holistic effects of these illnesses on the patients. Nursing care to maintain skin integrity is critical in preventing complications related to these conditions. This knowledge will help me support emotional and psychology since such patients face many psychological issues. It will form the foundation for my studies on the solutions for the challenges faced in the care.
Dirkes, S. M. (2016). Acute kidney injury vs. acute renal failure. Critical Care Nurse, 36(6), 75–76. Web.
Herschorn, S. (2013). Challenges in the lower urinary tract and pelvic floor disorders: Where do we go from here? Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l’Association des urologues du Canada, 7(9-10 Suppl 4), S208. Web.
Irwin, G. M. (2019). Urinary incontinence. Primary Care, 46(2), 233–242. Web.
Levey, A. S., & James, M. T. (2017). Acute kidney injury. Annals of Internal Medicine, 167(9), ITC66–ITC80. Web.