💊 Essays on Pharmacology

Carfilzomib Drug for Multiple Myeloma

Introduction In the past decade, there have been important advances made in the treatment of various forms of cancer (Demo, Krik, & Aujay 2007). The discoveries made so far have led to increased survival rates for individuals affected with considerably risky forms of cancer. The introduction of drugs like thalidomide...

Pharmacology

The Mechanism of Action NSAIDs as an Explanation of Their Unwanted Effects

Abstract The use of NSAIDS has been in general medical practice for many years and its therapeutic effects documented for a long time. NSAIDs have been widely known for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. They have been used in many clinical situations with good outcomes. The local, as well...

Pharmacology

Evolution of the Pharmacists in an Independent Prescribing Role

Abstract The thesis study aims at demonstrating that a career community pharmacist can practice as an effective clinician in a prescribing role treating patients in a primary care setting. The introduction of advanced and enhanced community pharmacy services enhances the need for pharmacists to integrate into primary care medical services....

Pharmacology

The Human Caspases: Viral Inhibitor

Sequential Activation Apoptosis, which is the controlled death of cells in an organism, is important in order to remove damaged and aged cells from the system. A group of cysteine aspartic acid-specific proteases (also referred to as caspases) is the one that regulates this death process. Caspases are activated within...

Pharmacology

Use of Natural Products for Osteoarthritis Treatment

Introduction Osteoarthritis is a health condition that affects the joints and muscles around the knees. It is characterized by breakdown of joint cartilage over a period of time. In normal circumstances, cartilage allows bones to slide over one another, but patients with this condition experience pain around joints because there...

Pharmacology

Pharmaceutical industry: Generic drug

Origin and history of generic drugs Generic drugs have been around for decades. However, their regulation was necessitated by several controversial occurrences within the market. In 1937, there was an incident associated with Elixir Sulfanilamide. It caused the death of approximately one hundred and seven people and eventually prompted the...

Pharmacology

Organizational Structure Changes in Pfizer

The rapid development of science and technology and the organizational changes are some of the factors the challenge the survival and success of the pharmaceutical industries. The dynamics of this industry have been redefined through the combined forces of social, economic, political, and technological factors. Over the past many years,...

Pharmacology

Strategic Alliance on National Health

Abstract With an average annual growth rate of 11.1 percent from 1970 until 2006, the pharma market is one of the fastest-growing markets in the world, reaching more than US$400 billion in sales in 2003 (PhRMA, 2004). The industry is now going through a major consolidation stage where direct product...

Pharmacology

The Issue of Polypharmacy and Ways of Its Diminishing

Introduction Polypharmacy is a major problem that can affect anybody, but it is the most common to the elderly population. The concept of polypharmacy encloses the use of five or more medications at the same time (Fick et al., 2003), prescription of more medications than required, and prescription of medications...

Pharmacology

Psychopharmacology. Psychotropic Drug Promotion

The money spent on drug advertising is truly astounding and estimates are no longer in the billions but in the tens of billions, and increasing rapidly. According to a December 12, 2002, New York Times article, “Promotional spending in the United States by the 14 largest pharmaceutical companies increased at...

Pharmacology

Marijuana for Medicinal Purposes in the US

Introduction First, it was medical marijuana; next, it will be alcohol and so on and so forth. The problem the country faces with medical marijuana is similar to the one it faces when the issue of legalizing abortion nationwide or physician-assisted suicide came into view. Both of these areas are...

Pharmacology

Analysis of the Pharmaceutical Industry

Introduction The pharmaceutical industry should be discussed in the context of its global expansion. The problem is that the global business world has altered significantly in recent decades, leading to positive and negatives outcomes for globally oriented industries (Gaudillière 2015). Buyer behaviour has changed significantly, resulting in the generation of...

Pharmacology

Sickle-Cell Patients and Hydroxyurea: Examining Methodology and Design

Qualitative Methodology and Design In their study, Walker, Farzan, Gaydos, DeCastro, and Jonassaint (2016) discussed the perceptions of Hydroxyurea among patients suffering from the sickle-cell disease (SCD). Since the authors of the study focused primarily on the qualitative aspects of the issue, the qualitative research method was preferred. Particularly, an...

Pharmacology

Dose-Response Concept in Toxicology

The concept of dose-response is widely used in many biological disciplines and, in particular, in toxicology. According to Calabrese (2016), this dependency reflects the relationship between a specific dose of a particular substance and the number of those affected. In toxicology, this concept is utilized to identify the tendency to...

Pharmacology

Psychopharmacology: Mental Health Medications

The term mental illness is used to describe a particular model or behavioral disorder characterized by unusual actions and motifs (Hart & Ksir, 2014). A patient suffering from mental disorders demonstrates a set of symptoms that deteriorate the quality of his/her life significantly. For this reason, there is a great...

Pharmacology

Hydroxyurea Therapy for Sickle Cell Disease

HU Effects on Progression of SCD Symptoms Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with specific chronic and acute patient complications, including organ and tissue damage and severe episode of sickle cell crisis (SCC), which increase the risk for premature mortality. However, research evidence suggests that HU may change the prognosis...

Pharmacology

Pharmacology of Drugs and Abuse: Alprazolam and Adderall

Alprazolam General Description Alprazolam is an anxiolytic agent, a triazolobenzodiazepine derivative that has sedative, anticonvulsant, and central muscle relaxant effect. The drug is marked by the anxiolytic activity that is expressed in the reduction of emotional stress, anxiety, and panic attacks, which is combined with a moderately pronounced hypnotic effect...

Pharmacology

Generic Drugs vs Name Brand Drugs

Market structure According to the US government report of 2007, the market structure for both the prescription drugs (brand-name drugs) and generic drugs are changing significantly. It notes that for the last four decades there, is a small increase, in demand, for prescription drugs due to the increasing use of...

Pharmacology

Prescription Drug Abuse as a Health Issue

Even though following the prescriptions of doctors and strict adherence to the course of treatment are mandatory conditions for the recovery process, excessive attachment to certain drugs may become a problem. In particular, prescription drug abuse is the issue that is relevant today and should be discussed at the state...

Pharmacology

Pharmaceutical Industry in History and Future

History of the Industry The pharmaceutical industry is a relatively new industry, the origins of which can be traced to the mid-19th century. Until that time, there was no mass production of drugs; apothecaries relied mainly on natural remedies, which were ineffective in solving the most prevalent health issues of...

Pharmacology