Understanding the demeanors of patients within patient-physician dyad is critical to addressing their progress through behavior. Andersen’s behavioral model is effective in conceptualizing this interactive indulgence. Originally, this theoretical approach would valuably give representation of sociological constructs (Petrovic & Blank, 2015). Over the years, the tactic has evolved to incorporate more other concepts, which connect psychology (feeding back loops and individual behaviors) to healthcare and then to public health. The simulation’s development permits for the examination of adult’s uptake of mental healthcare services in rural settings as noted through qualitative investigations.
Andersen’s Behavioral Model in Examining Mental Health Services Uptake Among Adults in Rural Setting
Life is dynamic and adapts to change as individuals go through aging processes. As people grow old, health becomes increasingly vital in determining their well-being. Human fitness and individual years correlate in the confines of social relationships, specifically in the dyadic associations, where the main attribution is dependent on friends and family members. Associations are formed uniquely based on a patient’s environment, permitting individuals to embrace the need to overcome and confront challenges associated with the temporal process of living and managing chronic conditions such as mental health. The dominant relationship occurring in a dyadic health environment allows the sharing of the burden of continuing illness conditions between physicians and patients (Petrovic & Blank, 2015). The response to health services by a person in every dyadic relationship is unique. However, through Andersen’s model, it is possible to understand the adult services uptake rate rendered to mental health patients in a rural setting.
Some of the common mental ailments known today are anxiety and depressive disorders. In striving to understand adult uptake of mental services, Roberts et al. (2018) initiated a study of common mental disorders (CMD). The authors majored on dysthymia as a depressive behavior and general anxiety disorders, including social anxieties, panic, and phobias, because they are common mental disorders in contemporary society. The study used qualitative method, to scrutinize Andersen’s model. The research considered 52 studies with inclusion criteria being samples collected from rural adults (Roberts et al., (2018). The highest number of studies, among other factors, was on treating the CMD and socio-demographic factors as classified in Andersen’s model. Variables such as predisposing factors, need and enabling factors were great determinants. Various researches investigated comorbidity, symptom severity, profile, and “need” as revealed by Andersen’s model. The ultimate consideration here is as follows: the approach is valuable in investigating the factors, which encourage some members to seek treatment in a community.
The proper use of the Andersen model reveals how patients would seek medication for their conditions. One of the influences to adults’ service uptake for mental health in a rural setting is psychosocial (Hirshfield et al., 2016). According to the original Andersen’s model, psychosocial aspects are great determinants of decision-making process noted as intended or planned behaviors (Travers et al., 2020). The issues are derived from the common planned behaviors theory (Travers et al., 2020). There are various characteristics associated with this concept, including knowledge, attitudes, perceived control, and social norms, among others (Travers et al., 2020). Therefore, the uptake of mental health services, as stated in Andersen’s model, depends on adults’ attitudes. The approaches are controlled by aspects such as ‘why’ they should receive the services in an environment dominated by social norms as it is in rural settings.
The enabling factors are other determinants of service intake among mental adults. According to (Travers et al., 2020), the issues entail having a commendable individual level, and community resources deemed necessary for access to the care. Facility and support available in rural settings work along with the idea of receiving or accessing support. One of the supports available is funding, noted as one of Andersen’s psychosocial factors determining how people intake mental service in rural areas (Kim & Lee, 2016). Receiving care, which is sought of or needed in a rural setting, depends on the enabling dynamics such as the supply or availability of services and the adults’ aptitude to pay for the services. In rural areas, these issues top the list of the determinants to mental service uptake (Sutter, 2017). Various issues, such as obtainable resources and facilities, are crucial for mental service uptake among adults in a rural community.
Need is known as a perception of people regarding their own functional and health state. The “need” as explained in Andersen model is susceptible to negative or positive influences, which also determines the community’s will to access health services (Travers et al., 2020). The research done by Travers et al. (2020) using one-on-one structured interview shows the availability of financial incentives or resources and health education program to be determinants, which establish adults’ needs in a rural setting. The rate at which people seek mental services in rural is equivalents to the knowledge they receive or their financial capabilities (Kim & Lee, 2016). In relation to the open-ended survey questions presented to them, the older adults who took part in the study agree with the “need” aspect as a variable, explaining the desires of seeking health services (Travers et al., 2018). This aspect encourages accessing healthcare with the drive of the demographic characteristics. The extent of the “need” adults feel in a community provokes them to increase or reduce their mental services uptake rate.
Application of Andersen’s Behavioral Model
The model can easily outline or show how an adult in rural setting uptake mental services. The research findings are consistent with other literature in studying service acceptance among the mentally affected (Zhang & Chen, 2019). Rural adults, in comparison to the urban population, as studied in the Southern U.S regions, showed an increased desire to look for mental services with the inclusion of enabling and predisposing variables as stated in Andersen’s model (Tolera et al., 2020). These individuals were noted to seek the service due to the increased stressors of life under the influence of their loved ones in the community. Therefore, Andersen’s model is important in ascertaining what propels people in rural society to seek help for their mental issues.
The model has so far transformed to include phase three of the model. According to Tolera et al. (2020), this theory reveals the contribution of enabling, predisposing, and need factors on health-related behaviors. These aspects are important, because many adults in rural setting are uninsured but are forced to seek primary care, which requires them to fund the services they receive at a community level. This phase is recursive, and by it, the aspects of prediction and explanation on adults’ mental health services uptake become vivid. All the components, which make up the phase, contribute positively to the idea of seeking health services. The predisposing characteristics need, and enabling resources are all variables, which measure the adults’ health services accessibility. These determinants are imperative in studying the experiences of vulnerable populations, such as those found in rural settings and the service delivery mechanisms among the elderly.
The model, however, operates on specific characteristics in terms of understanding service uptakes. For instance, it has specific characteristics, which connect to the awareness of utilization of behaviors (Mbalinda et al., 2020). Individual and population’s uniqueness in the context of risk and quality of services available, locations, insurance status, and transportation influences variable characterizations. It is thus important to note the model as a revealing mechanism, which healthcare policies and operative principles influence in regard to service delivery. Therefore, the model is vital in studying for applicability and cares which models health care behavior in terms of utilization (Tolera, 2020). By employing this model, it is easier to understand how adults in rural areas receive services.
In conclusion, it is worth mentioning that service intake in rural and urban settings is varied. By studying Andersen’s models, it is crucial to understand there are predisposing variables, needs, and enabling variables in service intake among the adult suffering from mental issues. The rural setting tends to service its members as vulnerable or marginalized people because they do not easily access insurances and knowledge and are underpinned by social norms when seeking mental services. Under the concept of need, however, it is a reality, the adults in this setting access treatment by the influence the community’s variables as noted from the studies done by various researchers as outlined in the essay.
Kim, H., & Lee, M. (2016). Factors associated with health services utilization between the years 2010 and 2012 in Korea: Using Andersen’s Behavioral model. Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives, 7(1), 18-25. Web.
Hirshfield, S., Downing, M., & Horvath, J. K. (2016). Adapting Andersen’s behavioral model of health service use to examine risk factors for hypertension among U.S. MSM. American Journal of Men’s Health, 12(4), pp. 788-797. Web.
Mbalinda, S.N., Kaye, D. K,Nyashanu, M., & Kiwanuka, N. (2020). Using Andersen’s behavioral model of health care utilization to assess contraceptive use among sexually active perinatally hiv-infected adolescents in Uganda. Research article, 1-9. Web.
Petrovic, K., & Blank, T. O. (2015). The andersen–newman behavioral model of health service use as a conceptual basis for understanding patient behavior within the patient–physician dyad: The influence of trust on adherence to statins in older people living with HIV and cardiovascular disease. Cogent Psychology. Web.
Roberts, T., Esponda, M. G., Krupchanka, D., Shidhaye, R., Patel, V., & Rathod, S. (2018). Factors associated with health service utilisation for common mental disorders: A systematic review. BMC Psychiatry, 262,-(2), 1-19. Web.
Sutter, E. M. (2017). An integrated behavioral model of healthcare utilization among transgender and gender-nonconforming adults transgender and Gender-Nonconforming Ad. VCU Scholars Compass. Web.
Tolera, H., Gebdre-Egziabher, T., & Kloos, H. (2020). Using Andersen’s behavioral model of health care utilization in a decentralized program to examine the use of antenatal care in rural western Ethiopia. Research Article, 1(1), 1-18. Web.
Travers, L. J., Hirschman, K. B., & Naylor, D. M. (2020). Adapting Andersen’s expanded behavioral model of health services use to include older adults receiving long-term services and supports. BMC Geriatrics, 58(2), 1-16. Web.
Zhang, B., & Chen, Q. (2019). Understanding healthcare utilization in china through the Andersen behavioral model: Review of evidence from the china health and nutrition survey. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 209-224. Web.