Cardiovascular Diseases in California

Cardiovascular diseases (CD) compose one of the most critical health concerns in the US, and California is not an exception. The search on the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) website revealed that Hispanic and Latino populations of California are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In particular, 26 percent of Hispanic and Latino population representatives were diagnosed with high blood pressure that may also reflect some heart problems compared to 28.7 percent of Californians in general (“Adult health profiles,” 2017). In California, CD acts as a leading cause of mortality (24 percent), and such health conditions as obesity and continuous stress deteriorate the situation. Hispanics are accounted for 32.5 percent of CD diagnosing compared to 44.2 percent of Native Americans and 28.2 percent of White population (California Department of Public Health, 2016). According to data provided by the above source, the target population is more prone to CD compared to others.

CD mortality rates among Hispanic and Latino populations may also present recent trends and previous facts. As reported by the California Department of Public Health (2016), Hispanics are characterized with 156.4 deaths per 100, 000 in 2014, while this figure was 259.9 in 2000. Accordingly, 214.5 and 344.9 deaths are estimated for White population in the same years. These statistics show that even though Hispanics are more likely to be diagnosed with CD, their mortality rates are lower than those of non-Hispanics living in California. Heart attack hospitalizations is another category that is worth turning one’s attention to. In California, African-Americans were hospitalized more than others in 2014 (180.3 hospitalizations per 100,000) compared to 132.9 in Hispanics and 132.9 in White population (California Department of Public Health, 2016). It is possible to assume that due to health disparities, Hispanic population has poor access to health care services and, in particular, emergency care.

Two aggravating factors that should be noted in the context of CD in Latino patients from California, it is important to note a low income and a lack of education. Bostean et al. (2013) argue that 41.6 percent of foreign-born and 16.5 percent of native-born Hispanics with low education or lack thereof have low income. At the same time, 16.2 percent of the target population with higher education show better health conditions (Bostean et al., 2013). Therefore, it is essential to assume that the mentioned factors may either improve or deteriorate health outcomes associated with CD.

In order to understand the level of CD in Californian Hispanic population, it is essential to focus on the national level. The overall prevalence of CD in Hispanics is 8.3 percent, while non-Hispanic white population and non-Hispanic African-Americans are marked as 11.1 percent and 10.3percent, respectively (Balfour, Ruiz, Talavera, Allison, & Rodriguez, 2016). On the national scale, approximately 610,000 people die from heart disease per year in the US, of which 47 percent is cardiac attacks outside hospitals. Likewise California, the national level may be marked with lower mortality from CD in Hispanic population. Balfour et al. (2016) consider that this Hispanic paradox refers to longer life expectancies. The gap in the research is associated with the fact that the causes of such paradox are not yet discovered, and the future studies are needed. Thus, the analysis of CHIS data, scholarly articles, and other official websites illustrates that Hispanic and Latino populations are at a higher risk of CD in California and the US as a whole.

References

Adult health profiles. (2017). Web.

Balfour Jr, P. C., Ruiz, J. M., Talavera, G. A., Allison, M. A., & Rodriguez, C. J. (2016). Cardiovascular disease in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. Journal of Latina Psychology, 4(2), 98-113.

Bostean, G., Roberts, C. K., Crespi, C. M., Prelip, M., Peters, A., Belin, T. R., & McCarthy, W. J. (2013). Cardiovascular health: Associations with race–ethnicity, nativity, and education in a diverse, population-based sample of Californians. Annals of Epidemiology, 23(7), 388-394.

California Department of Public Health Chronic Disease Control Branch. (2016). Burden of cardiovascular disease in California. Web.