Chlamydia and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sanyu, M., & Everett, B. (2012). STD and HIV Risk Factors among U.S. Young Adults: Variations by Gender, Race, Ethnicity and Sexual Orientation, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 44(2), 125-133.

Summary

The article hypothesizes that different people have differing levels of risks of infections with STDs. Consequently, it scrutinizes ethnicity, race, gender, and minority groups in terms of STD risk factors differences.

Methodology

The methodology used entailed analyzing 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 waves data for ‘national longitudinal study for adolescents’ health.

Results

The results indicated that every woman belonging to an ethnic or racial group whose members are minority group experienced risky situations in her life such as forced sex and likelihoods of having multiple partners in comparison to heterosexual counterparts.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

The significance of this study to Nursing and Patient Care is that incorporation of identities of multiple minority groups’ in STD and HIV intervention programs is a noble strategy towards the enactment of effective STD and HIV prevention programs.

Lewis, L., Melton, R., Succop., & Rosenthal, L. (2000).Factors influencing condom use and STD acquisition among African American College women. Journal of American College Health, 49(1), 19-23.

Summary

Various factors may account for the portrayed behaviors of condom use among different people susceptible to risks of STI infection. In this light, the article highlights various factors that influence condom use and exposure to risk factors for contracting STDs among college women belonging to the American racial affiliation.

Methodology

The methodology deployed was surveying a sample comprising of 123 undergraduate women who are sexually experienced in a state university.

Results

The results of the study indicate that women who had earlier sexual experiences and or those who have had multiple partners had higher probabilities of having been infected by STDs.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

This study is significant to Nursing and Patient Care since the probability of contracting STDs is dependent on the degree of exposure to risky sexual behaviors.

Moss, N., et al. (2004). Field action report. “Street medicine”: collaborating with a faith-based organization to screen at-risk youths for sexually transmitted diseases, Journal of American Health, 94 (7), 1081-1084.

Summary

Education and infection screening intervention programs have different impacts on target population. To support this claim, this article presents the results of an education and screening intervention for STDs conducted among youths in social sexual networks.

Methodology

The methodology used here is a thorough analysis of the results of education and screening interventions for STDS

Results

The study results indicate that Chlamydia and gonorrhea are prevalent among African American minority groups who dwell in low-income regions.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

Due to the economic nature of this prevalence, the results of these screening and treatment initiatives are crucial in Nursing and Patient Care since they provide a theoretical foundation for the applicability of street medicine to curb infections of STDs and Chlamydia.

Trepka, J., Kim, S., Pelkov., V., Zamor, P. , Velez, E., & Gabaroni, M. (2008). High-risk sexual behavior among students of a minority-serving university in a community with a high HIV/AIDS prevalence, American Journal of College Health, 57(1), 77-84.

Summary

The article hypothesizes that in college settings, students possessed differing levels of awareness on STDs intervention programs. Consequently, the article analyzes levels of awareness of programs for STDs on campus.

Methodology

The methodology used an entangled cross-sectional study of urban minority students at South Florida University.

Results

The results indicated that 14 percent of the sample size indulges in risky behaviors (had multipliable partners and failed to use condoms during virginal sex) during the last time in which they had sexual intercourse. 11.9 percent reported having experienced more than one sexual intercourse with multiple partners without using condoms. Alcohol prevalence was found as being directly related to indulgence in risky behaviors.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

Consequently, these results are vital in Nursing and Patient Care since alcoholism and other drugs’ prevalence may be indicators of prevalence of STDs among university students.

Weiss, A., et al. (2010). Learning from a community action plan to promote safe sexual practices, Social work, 55(1), 19-26.

Summary

Programs that are initiated while incorporating the contribution of communities may serve as subtle tools for enhancing campaigns for infections HIV and AIDS awareness. From this perspective, the article discusses the action plan project for reducing HIV and AIDS infections via community-focused participatory action.

Methodology

To enhance the significance of such a project, phone calls were made to determine the preparedness of south Florida County’s people to change risky behaviors that truncated to high rates of HIV and AIDS infection.

Results

The results indicated that following intensive awareness of the dangers of indulging in risky sexual behaviors, the target population was ready to change. Consideration was given to changing the high school curriculum to incorporate more aspects of sex education.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

Since the goal of Nursing and Patient Care is not only to treat already infected people, the identified role of sex education in the prevention of HIV and AIDS and other STDS are central to the concerns of Nursing and Patient Care for the prevention of the same infections.

Sipkin, D., Gillam, A., & Grady B. (2004). Risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a California collegiate population, Journal of American college health, 52(5), 236.

Summary

The authors argue that an intensive and detailed evaluation of infections of Chlamydia trachomatis has not been conducted with particular reference to college students. Thus, the focus of the study was to determine the distribution of Chlamydia infection among students on campuses.

Methodology

For this purpose, the authors conducted cross-sectional research on 4,086 students who had enrolled in California state university campuses. Urine testing was done for Chlamydia DNA.

Results

The results showed a uniform distribution of infections on a gender basis.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

The results of the study are significant in Nursing and Patient Care since they indicated the relevance of the development of an outreach program for screening university students for Chlamydia.

Carter, M., et al. (2011). STD and HIV Testing Behaviors among Black and Puerto Rican Young Adults, Perspect, sex reproduce health, 43(4), 238-246.

Summary

This article appreciates that there have been high infection rates of STDs and HIV among urban youths. The article finds it relevant to study the attitudes of youths towards this preference of infections. Consequently, it seeks to create an understating of testing behaviors on this group of people from the dimensions of serious and casual affairs.

Methodology

Philadelphia and Hartford’s data garnered in 2007-2008 was utilized in examination of HIV and STDs altitudes and testing procedures among Puerto Rican people between 18 and 25 years old.

Results

The results indicate that, amid the existing risks of infections, many of those who took part in the study did not perceive themselves as being at risk.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

These results are vital to Nursing and Patient Care since it creates an insight that health practitioners need to create practical awareness of risks of HIV and STDs as opposed to perceived awareness.

Hillis, D., et al. (1995).The impact of a comprehensive Chlamydia prevention program in Wisconsin, Fam Plan Perspective, 27(3), 108-111.

Summary

The authors argue that Chlamydia infections awareness programs have impacts on the new infection rates. Therefore, they consider determining whether the awareness programs resulted in increased or decreased infection rates among Wisconsin residents

Methodology

The study uses laboratory record reports for cases coupled with hospital discharges data.

Result

The results indicated that implementation of awareness programs for Chlamydia had resulted in a reduction of infections among Wisconsin residents.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

These results are significant in Nursing and Patient Care since similar programs may be deployed to produce similar results.

Lehtinen, M., Paavonen, J., Apter, D. (2007). Preventing common sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: time for rethinking, The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 11(4), 247-249.

Summary

The article seeks to determine whether it is necessary to design intervention programs for STDS based on every infection or from contexts of STDS as a whole. The authors argue that discrimination of various STIs is necessary since different modes of infection present differing economic and social impacts.

Methodology

The study conducts an analysis of global data on the provenance rates of various STD infections.

Results

Results indicate that gonorrhea and syphilis stand at 0.001 to 0.05 percent in comparison to 0.5-5 percent for the case of Chlamydia, HPV, and genital herpes.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

Essentially, these results are vital in Nursing and Patient Care because they give a mechanism of approaching STDS, rather not from general but to specifics depending on the degree of susceptibility.

Bowden, F et al. (2012). A pragmatic assessment of the relative efficiency of outreach Chlamydia screening events conducted in non-clinical settings, BMC Public Health, 9(12), 341.

Summary

In the article, it is argued that the differing approaches of creating awareness and testing of Chlamydia need to be evaluated based on costs. From this end, it scrutinizes Chlamydia opportunistic screening approaches based on the alternatives, which give the most substantial benefit on investment.

Methodology

The methodology entangles measuring the efficiency of every screening event. In the study of 3011, 71 percent of females were screened in 18 events taking place in 10 venues.

Results

In the study of 3011, 71 percent of females were screened in 18 events taking place in 10 venues. For Chlamydia, the positive detection rate was 0.4 percent per hour.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

Measuring efficiently of detection of infections is critical in coming up with the most appropriate testing procedures for Chlamydia.

Samkange, F., Spallek, L & Zeeb, H. (2011). Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among school-going adolescents in Europe: a systematic review of published literature, BMC public health, 11(2), 727.

Summary

The article hypothesizes that awareness levels on STD may depend on various demographic factors such as gender, age and geographical locations. Consequently, the article presents the awareness levels about STDs among European schooling young adolescents from gender perspectives.

Methodology

The main methodology used is to conduct a critical review of existing scholarly evidence on how school-going male and female adolescents perceive their own exposures to risks of contracting HPV, syphilis, HIV and Chlamydia among others.

Results

The results indicated that awareness is valid depending on gender and the magnitude of knowledge about the infections among members of a given gender.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

These results are essential in Nursing and Patient Care since they can aid in pointing at possible areas of STD risks communication.

Sieverding, J., et al. (2005). Youth united through health education: building capacity through a community collaborative intervention to prevent HIV/STD in adolescents residing in a high STD prevalent neighborhood, AIDS Educ Prev, 17 (14), 375-385.

Summary

In the article, it is argued that administration of preventive and control mechanisms of STDS may help to amply manage STD, Chlamydia and HIV infections. In this dimension, the article holds that early detection coupled with treatment of infection associated with STDs encompasses an imperative strategy for realizing slowed HIV transmission.

Methodology

The methodology used to realize these deductions was the utilization of youths living within the neighborhood of youth health educators to determine the effectiveness of YUTHE intervention programs.

Results

The results indicated that females and males who proactively participated in YUTHE program possess lower risks of contracting Chlamydia.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

The results imply that Nursing and Patient Care awareness programs are essential towards achieving measures for prevention of STD infections.

Friedman, L., & Blood, B. (2010). Something we would rather not talk About: Findings from CDC Exploratory Research on Sexually Transmitted Disease Communication with Girls and Women, Journal of women’s’ health, 19(10), 1823-1831.

Summary

Different people may have different attitudes and beliefs about testing for Chlamydia and STDS. Therefore, the article explores what women and girls understand as the meaning of STD coupled with Chlamydia testing.

Methodology

The method used is direct interviews in ten metropolitan regions inhabited by multiethnic people.

Results

The results indicated that majority of the participants had no knowledge of the areas of concern of the study.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

To the Nursing and Patient Care, these results imply that education on STDS is a major task in prevention and control of STDS and Chlamydia.

O’Donovan et al. (2009). Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behavior among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland, BMC public health, 9(3), 397.

Summary

The article argues that Chlamydia may constitute various threats, which make people develop differing attitudes when they become aware that they have been infected by it. Essentially, the research presents Chlamydia threat components coupled with predominance constituents among advanced education women scholars in the Ireland’s context.

Methodology

The methodology entangled the administration of questionnaires and urine testing for Chlamydia.

Result

Among the 460 persons tested, 22 of them give positive results for Chlamydia.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

To the Nursing and Patient Care, this study reveals that reducing indulgence in risky behaviors is a subtle way of reducing infections of Chlamydia since it was prevalent among students engaging in one-night stands.

Einwalter, A., Richie, M., Ault, K,. & Smith, E. (2005). Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection Among Women Visiting Family Planning Clinics Racial Variation in Prevalence and Predictors. Perspect Sex Reprod Health, 37(3), 135, 140.

Summary

A wide body of knowledge on both Chlamydia and gonorrhea indicates that these two infections have differing preference rates based on gender, race or ethnicity. From this perspective, the article scrutinizes whether there are factors that may indicate that Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections in women are dependent on race.

Methodology

On testing 31762 women, regression analysis was applied to assess the infections’ associated risk factors.

Results

The results indicated that 0.7 percent of women had gonorrhea while 4 percent had Chlamydia. Of these, 4 percent black women and 0.4 percent white women had gonorrhea while 9 percent black women and 4 percent white women had Chlamydia.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

To the Nursing and Patient Care, this means that programs for prevention of Chlamydia need to be engineered based on race.

Chlamydia screening programs: A review of the literature. Part 1: issues in the promotion of Chlamydia testing of youth by primary care physicians. McKay, A. (2006). Chlamydia screening programs: a review of the literature. Part 1: issues in the promotion of Chlamydia testing of youth by primary care physicians. Canadian Journal Of Human Sexuality, 15(1), 1-11.

Summary

The focus of the article is to define the roles that physicians can play apart from testing and treatment of Chlamydia. In particular, the central question posited is whether physicians need to conduct risks of infection assessment among their clients.

Methodology

The article reviews the data generated from research of Chlamydia screening among youths as per physicians’ records.

Results

The results indicate that there exists an immense need for physicians to conduct assessments for health risks alongside their testing for Chlamydia since Chlamydia is found as being most prevalent among 15 – 24 years old women.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

The results add an extra role of assessment to Nursing and Patient Care practitioners.

Chlamydia screening programs: A review of the literature. Part 2: Testing procedures and educational interventions for primary care physicians. Bissell, M. (2006). Chlamydia screening programs: a review of the literature. Part 2: testing procedures and educational interventions for primary care physicians. Canadian Journal Of Human Sexuality, 15(1), 13-22.

Summary

In the article, it is held that there exists an immense need to evaluate the effectiveness of various intervention programs for Chlamydia infections. For this reason, the article discusses the elements for a successful physician-designed intervention program considering the accuracy of Chlamydia testing techniques.

Methodology

The methodology used here entails conducting a thorough literature review of existing body of knowledge on the particular area.

Results

The results indicate that patient-centered Chlamydia testing techniques can produce substantive results on the patient’s perception of Chlamydia.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

These results are critical in Nursing and Patient Care since every program for treatment needs to be patient-focused.

Lorimer, K., & Hart, G. (2010)Knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis among men and women approached to participate in community-based screening, Scotland, UK, BMC public health, 30(10), 794.

Summary

This article recognizes that Chlamydia infection is mostly prevalent among young people. Therefore, it finds it plausible to presents the extent of consciousness of the juvenile populace on Chlamydia, particularly those in diverse societal backgrounds offering opportunistic programs.

Methodology

The method used utilized women aged 16-24 years old to complete questionnaires.

Results

Even though the people to whom the questionnaires were administered revealed ample knowledge about Chlamydia, this knowledge decreased as the questions became focused.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

The results are essential in Nursing and Patient Care since, they indicate a more focused educational program on Chlamydia.

Carol, A., Stamm, M., & Richard, H., et al. (2011). An evidence-based approach to managing common STIs in adolescents. Modern medicine. Web.

Summary

The article hypothesizes that in case both gonorrhea and Chlamydia go untreated, different people would experience different consequences. Hence, it focuses on evaluating the impacts of these infections in case they go untreated for a long time among different people on accounts of age, and gender.

Methodology

The methodology used is a review of a variety of literature and data from institutions like CDC.

Results

The results indicate that young women and adolescents are more prone to risks of contracting STDs coupled with experiencing pronounced consequences of Chlamydia infection and gonorrhea, in case these ailments go untreated.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

The results are critical in Nursing and Patient Care since they create the impression that Chlamydia prevention and control programs deserve to be gender and age-focused.

Burns, N., Briggs, P., & Gaudet, A. (2007). Chlamydia screening in teenage girls. Nurse Pract, 32(6), 41-43.

Summary

The article hypothesizes that demographic factors may influence the prevalence of Chlamydia infections. Therefore, the article finds it necessary to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia based on age.

Methodology

The methodology utilized is an analysis of secondary data generated from a variety of research sources in the field of Chlamydia infections.

Results

The results of the study show that, although Chlamydia is more common among adolescents, adolescents living in inner cities have more prevalence rates.

Significance to Nursing and Patient Care

The result highlights the necessity of Nursing and Patient Care to place different levels of emphasis on testing and treatment of Chlamydia based on where the target population lives.