Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease that occurs quite often in patients of different ages and is characterized by hyperglycemia syndrome, which is a result of insufficient insulin production. With undue treatment, this disease can affect blood vessels, nervous system, and metabolism of patients. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the different types of this disease, drug treatment for this condition, and the impact of the disease on the patient.
Type 1 diabetes can be either autoimmune or idiopathic, and it is characterized by an elevated concentration of glucose in the patient’s blood. This condition develops due to destructive processes in the pancreatic cells, which secrete insulin, and an absolute lack of insulin in the patient’s body (Chaudhury et al., 2017). A high incidence of diabetes in this type is found in adolescents and children. For this reason, type 1 diabetes is often called juvenile diabetes. The most severe complications of this condition are coma and death.
Type 2 diabetes occurs due to the reduced sensitivity of cells to insulin and a relative lack of insulin in the body. People whose close family members have suffered from this form of diabetes are also at risk. Quite often, the cause of insulin resistance is the excessive weight of patients. Unlike in type 1 diabetes, in type 2, autoimmune destruction of pancreatic gland cells that produce the hormone is not observed (Mosenzon, Pollack, & Raz, 2016).
The concentration of insulin in patients’ blood may be in the normal range or even higher than normal. However, this results in a situation of the insensitivity of cells to insulin. If a person does not receive the correct treatment, insulin secretion will gradually decrease.
Gestational diabetes is significantly different from the first two types since it occurs or is first diagnosed during pregnancy of a woman, and it often occurs due to metabolic disorders. In some patients, gestational diabetes can develop into type 2 diabetes. The disease can affect not only the woman’s health but also the growth and development of the fetus (Chaudhury et al., 2017). If the woman develops diabetes during the early stages of pregnancy, the risk of congenital malformations of the heart and brain structures of the fetus increases. During the 2nd or 3rd trimester of pregnancy, the disease can lead to macrosomia and hyperinsulinemia. Patients must stick to a special diet and exercise regime; however, in some cases, drug therapy may be advised.
Insulin Preparation and Administration and Dietary Considerations
Patients with type 2 diabetes do not always need insulin injections since such lifestyle changes as keeping a diet, regular exercise, and oral medication intake can improve their health status to a significant degree (Purnell, Joy, Little, Bridges, & Maruthur, 2014). Nevertheless, it often happens that patients eventually will need to receive insulin. Healthcare specialists determine the amount of insulin individually for each patient, and it can be given either intravenously or subcutaneously. The scheme always depends on the patient’s weight and sensitivity.
In type 2 diabetes, subcutaneous administration is the optimal way of injecting the drug, although the intramuscular administration is also possible. Insulin is administered in parts between the meals, and it can be injected with a syringe, pump, or prefilled pen (Ahmann, Szeinbach, Gill, Traylor, & Garg, 2014). The drug should be injected into the patient’s arms, thighs, or abdomen. Patients should always wash their hands before the procedure and then roll the shot between their hands and cleanse the top of the drug container. After they have cleansed the injection area, they can administer the drug. During the procedure, the needle should be injected at a ninety-degree angle.
Keeping a proper diet is particularly important for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Patients should reduce the consumption of food and drinks containing high refined carbohydrates. Instead, they should opt for slow-release carbohydrate foods (Marin-Penalver, Martin-Timon, Sevillano-Collantes, & del Canizo-Gomez, 2016). It means that patients suffering from this type of diabetes should avoid eating such foods as bread or pasta and drinking carbonated water with sweeteners.
Short-Term and Long-Term Impact of Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes can cause various complications in a patient’s health. In particular, it can lead to hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis; however, they do not occur that often (Bope & Kellerman, 2016). In the first case, the short-term complication is the result of improper insulin intake (when the individual receives too much insulin). In the second case, ketoacidosis occurs when they did not receive the necessary amount of the drug. The possible consequences of improper insulin intake are shock and coma.
Importantly, the long-term complications of this disease are quite severe. If the treatment is ineffective, the patient will develop micro- and macrovascular complications. In the first case, eyes and kidneys are affected. In the second case, plaque buildup occurs, which is extremely dangerous (Bope & Kellerman, 2016). This condition can result in a stroke or heart attack. The side-effects of treatment include hypertrophy and skin rash, and patients should inform their care provider immediately if they notice any changes. It is highly important to ensure patients are well-informed about the consequences and side-effects of insulin intake.
Thus, it can be concluded that diabetes mellitus is a dangerous disease, and it is crucial to provide patients with proper care and education to avoid further complications. In severe cases, the disease can lead to coma or death and irreversible changes in the patient’s health. For these reasons, care providers should keep their patients well-informed and provide them with any help and assistance they need.
Ahmann, A., Szeinbach, S. L., Gill, J., Traylor, L., & Garg, S. K. (2014). Comparing patient preferences and healthcare provider recommendations with the pen versus vial-and-syringe insulin delivery in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 16(2), 76-83.
Bope, E. T., & Kellerman, R. D. (2016). Conn’s current therapy 2017. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
Chaudhury, A., Duvoor, C., Reddy Dendi, V. S., Kraleti, S., Chada, A., Ravilla, R., … Mirza, W. (2017). Clinical review of antidiabetic drugs: Implications for type 2 diabetes mellitus management. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 8, 1-12.
Marin-Penalver, J. J., Martin-Timon, I., Sevillano-Collantes, C., & del Canizo-Gomez, F. J. (2016). Update on the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. World Journal of Diabetes, 7(17), 354-395.
Mosenzon, O., Pollack, R., & Raz, I. (2016). Treatment of type 2 diabetes: From “guidelines” to “position statements” and back. Recommendations of the Israel National Diabetes Council. Diabetes Care, 39, S146-S153.
Purnell, T. S., Joy, S., Little, E., Bridges, J. F. P., & Maruthur, N. (2014). Patient preferences for noninsulin diabetes medications: A systematic review. Diabetes Care, 37(7), 2055-2062.