Health is a state of good functioning and the balance on the spiritual, social, mental, emotional, perceptional and physical level. Absolutely it is seen that nobody is perfectly healthy because since childhood all kind of childhood diseases and even the small imperfections are visible; a perfect health will result in the eternal life as the body will regenerate itself with the health power of the zygote stem cell and relatively it is seen somebody can be perfectly healthy because the person is not visible bothered with health disturbances and also that person which has all kinds of physical shortcomings but functions healthier than someone who looks healthy but has all kind of social and mental shortcomings. The Beatties model outlines a number of studies that have reported the benefits of the health promotion agencies who have adopted the approach. The community development for health is characterized by the groups of people who have similar health concerns or similar circumstances coming together to take joint action to improve health prospects and also it has been one way of altering the balance of power and the control between medical and the collaborative social approaches focusing on the positive health. It also focuses on the nature of the differing modes of intervention and the expert by the client to direct the behaviour of individuals in the top- down, prescriptive ways. (Cohen, 2002)
The legislative action for health is used to describe interventions which use the expertise of the health professionals to change civic policies and thus improve health and the action directed principally at the ecological, fiscal, legal and political modes of change. The personal counselling for health invites individual clients to engage in the active reflection and the review of the personal lifestyle and to assess their scope of change. The counselling is provided on a one- to- one basis or through processes within a group of peers. A Central component of this collective approach is partnership at all stages and the levels of the public health process and this means the partnership with communities, and clients within them as well as partnerships across professional groups and teamwork is an essential prerequisite to effective public health work.
The components of the public health are: mortality and morbidity statistics and their associated factors; socio- structural and environmental factors known to impact upon health; service provision, including clean water; the knowledge, belief and perceptions about health and health care held by the general public; the specific client groups, particularly vulnerable groups such as the homeless and those living in poverty; the social policy measures, especially legal and fiscal measures; and a particular method of working using community development or community participation approaches.
The epidemiology is an important aspect of health promotion, seen by many to be the primary feeder discipline which helps assess health needs of individuals and the communities and thereby underpins health promotion activity. It provides the scientific, objective foundation for one of the other approaches and the five main areas in this are: coronary heart disease and stroke; cancers; mental illness; accidents and the HIV/AIDS and sexual health and these areas are seen as being the major causes of the premature death and the preventable serious illness which offer the scope for effective action. There should be commitment at the government level, health professions, statutory and other authorities, the health authority, voluntary bodies, employers and the employees and the media. (David, 1989)
Attitudes towards certain behaviour are directly influenced by two interlinked key factors that are the beliefs and the motivation and to address them the promoter will need to provide clients with the information which challenges their beliefs, allow them to explore their feelings about certain behaviour and enables them to develop skills to cope with a change in behaviour.
The nursing approach organizes the health promotion activity by: assessing health needs- the individual and societal; planning health promotion activity; implementing health promotion interventions; and the evaluation of the health promotion. The community development is the central strategy for health promotion and the essence of health promotion is empowering the community. It is a user- led and demands different ways of working with individuals or groups to approaches such as the medical or behaviour change models and it has been viewed as being a highly political activity which can challenge power structures in the society.
Ethical, legal and economic framework issues concerning human samples, genetic data and bioresources are rapidly evolving and the national legislation on the use and the exploitation of the human sample collections differ widely. This legislations relating to intellectual property rights, access to database information for the public or the private bodies, of the national or the foreign origin are similarly diverse and the importation and the exportation rules, concerning in particular data protection, biosafety and the protection of individual rights, have not always been defined. The way the clinicians proceed to diagnose pathologies in their patients today is a broad evolution of the techniques and the way they plan and execute a treatment as well. (Cohen, 2002)
Many of the diagnosis methods are now based on images providing information that cannot be seen by the naked eye because they are in the interior of the patient’s body. The functional models of the human body would allow for a wide new palette of applications and would greatly improve the accuracy of the diagnosis and the treatment of a number of diseases. Such models must be able to faithfully reproduce human physiology but due the human body, that is a very hard task, especially when it is known that everything in the body works in synergy and the number of the parameters is potentially enormous. Disease around the articulations is one of the main causes of pain in orthopedy and pathologies such as hip arthritis reach virtually a high percentage of the population after a certain age. With the increase in the life expectancy these last decades, existing treatments such as joint replacement, are not effective.
These musculoskeletal pathologies can be avoided or delayed in the most of the cases if diagnosed early and therefore the early diagnosis by means of a functional analysis of a patient’s virtual model coupled with surgical prototype would greatly reduce pain occurrence and would increase the chances of the success of the surgical treatment. The articulation model must be able to provide useful physical information despite the eventual simplifications it has in relation to the real articulation. Considering the loads provoked by the bones motion, this application computes stress on the cartilage caps and it uses methods from the scientific visualization, such as colour mapping to visualize the stress in non- photorealistic rendering mode. The range off motion estimation based on the ligament constraint aims at estimating the joint range of motion and using the information about the maximum stress a ligament can bare before rupture, we move our joints to extreme positions while we measure the current maximum stress on the ligament at each time step and the position in which the maximum measured stress is greater than the failure stress for the material are considered unreachable, defining joint limits. (David, 1989)
The ligament elasticity estimation from the range of motion uses the inverse approach and is uses the range of motion measured by the clinician as input, and the aim at estimating the ligament elasticity. Knowing the certain postures moving further than the limits of the range of the motions causes ligament rupture, and knowing the average ligament rupture stress, which can be found in the biomechanics literature then it is easy to estimate the young’s modulus of this tissues. The pre- and the post- operative evaluation of the stress distribution aim at reorienting the femoral head in order to improve the hip range of motions. And the range of motions and stress distribution are first evaluated on the pre- operative model and then the bone is edited to provide a new joint configuration, analogously to what happens in a surgical procedure. The analysis of the post- operative virtual model allows for the assessment of the improvements obtained and the different femoral head orientations can be tested until the surgeon is satisfied. (David, 1989)
The nurses work to provide a link between hospital and home for the families with children with cancer, but the fundamental issues they face include: in linking the parts of the system and in linking the parts of the care as it is experienced, are shared by anyone who subscribes to holistic nursing. A literature search revealed no systematic enquiry into the experience of humour by nurses in the intensive care setting, suggesting that there is a need for such studies and this phenomenological study should be undertaken using an interpretive human science approach. The task is to investigate and describe the concept of humour in an intensive care unit from an inductive- descriptive perspective, seeking to identify the essence of the phenomenon through an accurate descriptive of the lived experience of humour and it is found out that the nurses have had humour on the sick and therefore the right care has been taken to the sick. The parents have to take care of their sick children as it is a requirement to them as they are human beings just like the rest. Parents fell disempowered when dealing with acute illness in their children because of the difficulties making sense of the illness and the central to parents’ difficulties is their experiences of inadequate information sharing by their general practitioners and the variations in their doctors’ decisions and behaviour.
The disparity between the parents’ beliefs and expectations about the illness and treatment and the professionals’ behaviour further frustrate the parents’ attempts to understand the illness.
When a child becomes sick the parents’ concerns may be influenced by their perceived degree of the control in relation to the perceived threat of the disease and the information and the education may enhance parents’ sense and control and inform their perceptions of the threat. The impact on the parents’ knowledge and the use of primary care services has proved disappointing and some information may worsen parental anxiety. Although parents seem to use and value information, some question its relevance and find answers lacking to most of the questions. The parents are also reluctant to follow advice that clashes with their beliefs and established practice. Information is the almost invariably defined by professionals with little or no consultation with parents. Most parents experienced feelings of helplessness when faced with the child suffering from an illness and they strongly want to be actively treating their child to diminish these feelings. This is often tied to the expectations that their children should be prescribed antibiotics and the disappointment and the frustration when this did not occur even among parents who seem to most readily acknowledge the self limiting nature of the most children’s illness. (David, 1989)
Parents are faced with dilemmas about whether to seek their doctor’s advice and there is a strong desire to share responsibility for assessment of their child with a professional, but parents are often worried or fell guilt that they might be bothering the doctor unnecessary.
Parents express a need for more information about their children’s illness and the advice about the management of the common symptoms is insufficient. They sought for explanation and the detail that is specific and practical to help they make decisions about the likely cause of an illness, how to assess severity and when to seek professional advice and they also want to know of any implications of the illness or its treatment and the potential for the prevention in the future. Implementation of strategies to support the establishment of the therapeutic relationships between the nurses and the clients requires strong organizational support. The nurse must acquire the necessary knowledge to participate effectively in the therapeutic relationship and the establishment of a therapeutic relationship requires reflective practice. The nursing best practice guidelines can be successfully implemented only where there are adequate planning, resources, organizational and administrative support, as well as the appropriate facilitation. Organizations may wish to develop a plan for implementation that includes: an assessment of the organizational readiness and barrier to implementation; involvement of all members who will contribute to the implementation process; dedication of a qualified individual to provide the support needed for the education and implementation process; ongoing opportunities for discussion and the education to reinforce the importance of the best practices; and opportunities for reflection on personal and organizational experience in implementing guidelines.
The therapeutic relationship is central to all nursing practice for example, in the mental health and the community nursing and it can be the primary intervention to promote awareness and the growth and to work through difficulties. It may be more in the background, serving as the intervention through which comfort, support, and provision of care are facilitated and regardless of setting and clinical situation, the therapeutic relationship always need to be established. The essential qualities of this relationship include respect, empathy and validation. Restructuring has had many impacts such as lower number of professional nurses to patients, replacement of the professional with non- regulated health providers, increasing casual and part – time nurses and decreased support mechanisms such as nurse educators and nurse managers and these impacts have resulted in decreased patient and nurse satisfaction, emotional burnout, increased length of stay, decreased quality of care as seen in outcomes such as the functional independence, pain, social functioning and the patient satisfaction.( Helen,2002)
The Beattie model has been of great impact in that it has led to implementation been done on the nursing department most probably the community nurses so as to be able to gain the right knowledge of dealing with the sick in the community. The sick people require a high care both socially and medically and therefore the nurses are able to give this to their patients. The parents also require information from their professional on how to go about their children’s illness and get the right advice to avoid the fear that the doctors may mislead them.
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Helen, Czoski- Murray, Carolyn. (2002): Effectiveness of appropriately trained nurses in preoperative assessment: randomized controlled equivalence/ non- inferiority trial. British medical journal, 325, (7376), 1323-1326.