Evidence Based Medicine: Primary Care, Clinical Review


Evidence-based medicine is a concept that has come to be incorporated and practiced in various sectors of medicine. It is regarded for its independence as well as validated advice. In addition to this evidence-based medicine has also been defined as “the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values.” Over the years evidence-based medicine has been viewed from a clinical perspective thereby locking out the patient’s point of view. According to clinicians, the world is viewed from a scientific and rational perspective. This is contrary to the patient’s perspective, which indicates that decisions made through evidence attained are based on individual values.

Primary care and clinical review

In the majority of industrialized countries, chronic incapacity is attributed to musculoskeletal disorders. Physiotherapy measures employed have all been focused on the management of chronic pain.

Osteoarthritis is one of the commonly known diseases that affect the joints and it’s attributed to a lot pain as well as deterioration of life. In respect to this, studies have been conducted to investigate the efficiency of acupuncture in relation to its complementary pharmacological treatment that is attributed to osteoarthritis. According to these studies that have been carried out to determine the efficiency of acupuncture in relation to its consideration as a complementary therapy to pharmacological therapy, it was evident that acupuncture was more effective as a complementary therapy to the osteoarthritis’ pharmacological therapy as compared to pharmacological therapy on its own. The evident attained was based in relation to the reduction of rigidity and pain as well as enhancing physical functions and quality of life associated with health.

PICO, the mnemonic regarded for defining the four elements attributed to attaining an appropriate clinical foreground question is best used in finding out the existence of predictable variations in respect to the effects. In relation to individual patient interventions, predicted absolute risks are of the utmost importance in regards to their reductions for the individuals. In addition to this, the consideration must be based on the basis of benefits outweighing the harms involved. Evidence-based information is crucial in the decision-making process of patients as it reduces variations in clinical practice as well as provides the liberty to patients to make their own decisions regarding their treatment. This is evident, especially in breast cancer patients. Information attained from evidence-based medicine is founded on philosophy’s perspective way of life and therefore individuals cannot relate to it. This however does not represent the patient’s perspective that prefers philosophical information, which is easy to comprehend, relate to, and above all, information that is able to address their personal values.


Patients’ values have come to be described as unique preferences and concerns that are brought by each patient to a clinical encounter and therefore must be incorporated in clinical decisions for the sole reason of serving the patients. Despite the fact that statistics are regarded as esoteric concepts that contain little relevance in the lives of patient’s, the basic principle the that pertains to evidence based medicine still remains to be giving of information based on probability, chance as well as risk. This however is the consequent concept that most of the patient’s find difficult to comprehend in terms of uncertainty that is integrated in the information presented.