Hypertension and diseases of the renal and urological system can be discussed as connected problems. Kidney diseases can be associated with hypertension, as well as problems with high blood pressure can have an impact on the effective functioning of kidneys. The problem is in the fact that high blood pressure affects all the systems of the human organism. This paper aims to describe the effects that hypertension has on the renal and urological system with a focus on pathophysiological changes in the organs and system.
The Hypertension Effects on the System
Arterial hypertension has significant negative effects on the renal and urological system, and the problems with the high blood pressure can lead to the progress of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and then, to kidney failure. It is important to note that there are many different degrees and types of kidney damage associated with hypertension. The negative impact is associated with the fact that high blood pressure can injure different types of blood vessels in the kidneys, including both small vessels and large arteries (Mahadevan & Garmel, 2012, p. 393). The problem is in the pressure with which large amounts of blood flow in vessels. As a result, blood vessels can become significantly damaged because they cannot stretch effectively to address the pressure. The injuries of vessels in the kidneys lead to problems in their work because of the inability to filter the fluid effectively (McCance & Huether, 2014, p. 1371). The degenerative changes in vessels can be observed. From this point, the effect of hypertension on the renal and urological system is negative.
Pathophysiological Changes in the Renal and Urologic System
When hypertension is not severe, the actual pathophysiological changes in the kidneys are observed in the form of glomerulosclerosis. Thus, small blood vessels become affected by the high pressure and large amounts of blood in them, and this situation leads to kidney scarring. When hypertension is severe, the damages in vessels and pathophysiological changes in kidneys are more significant. The constantly high level of blood pressure in vessels can cause renal damage because microvascular changes become observed in the kidney artery and smaller vessels, and this process is associated with nephrosclerosis. The problem is in the fact that the changes are associated with the hyalinosis of walls in vessels under the constant high pressure of blood (Mahadevan & Garmel, 2012). The result of such pathologies is the changes in the elastic lamina in arteries.
Walls of vessels become thickened, and they cannot function effectively. In this case, it is also possible to speak about such processes as the patchy tubular atrophy in addition to glomerulosclerosis of small vessels. All these processes can also be associated with nephron injury because kidneys’ attempt to balance the processes with the help of hyperfiltration causes additional injuries (McCance & Huether, 2014). All these processes also result in such changes as tubulointerstitial injury. This process can indicate kidney damage leading to end-stage renal disease.
The discussion of the effects of hypertension on the renal and urological system allows making conclusions that high blood pressure is a risky condition that can lead to significant kidney damage that is rather difficult to be diagnosed in time. The problem is in the fact that high blood pressure influences the ability of vessels in the kidneys to cope with the blood flow, and they become injured. As a result, the kidneys cannot filter the fluid effectively, and the higher blood pressure is associated with more significant diseases of the renal and urological system.
Mahadevan, S. V., & Garmel, G. M. (2012). An introduction to clinical emergency medicine. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
McCance, K., & Huether, S. (2014). Pathophysiology: The biological basis for disease in adults and children (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.