Both IgA and IgE are important immunoglobulin isotopes that play significant key roles in body defense mechanisms. Like most other site-specific antibodies found in the body, IgA is selective in nature and its functions are largely limited within the mucosa sites of the body which makes it one of the most abundant types of glycoprotein in the body. IgA occurs in two distinct forms in the human body described as isotopes namely IgA1 and IgA2 each with slight differences both in structure and function; suffice it to say that IgA2 is further subdivided into 3 other “allotypes”.
In general, IgA major function in the body is the defense of the body mucosa regions where they are entirely based; they do this by defending body mucosa against bacterial and viral infection of mucosa surfaces in two major ways. One, IgA defends against bacterial infections by secreting substances that neutralize bacteria toxins, and secondly, it protects mucosa surfaces against viruses by effectively intercepting and preventing receptor binding of mucous cells with viruses at these regions.
Other research studies indicate that IgA has other additional functions within the body, key of which include directing body attacks against parasitic infections in addition to acting as important components of eosinophils in the formation of interactions such as IgA–Fc_RI among others that are necessary for the strengthening of the body immunity.
IgE serum production and regulation in the body are directly controlled by the T-cells in the body. As an immunoglobulin, IgE functions are closely correlated with IgA isotope and have two general functions in the body i.e. facilitate cell signaling and activation and enable solubility of effector molecules. More specifically, IgE role in the body involves strengthening the body’s immunity against parasitic infections and regulation of hypersensitivity reactions in the body that are associated with allergic reactions. Because of these specific functions that IgE plays in the immune mechanism, it is mostly expressed in cells that have a high affinity for FceRI such as eosinophils and basophils.