Obesity: Dietary and Physical Activity Habits


The increased level of comfort peculiar to modern society can be dangerous for people. There are already some signs of the gradual deterioration of the situation. The use of technologies along with the digitalization of the environment preconditioned the lack of physical activity needed for people to remain in good shape. Additionally, numerous advances in the food industry resulted in the appearance of products and food supplements that hurt people’s health.

Finally, the modern lifestyle also poses a threat to the health of the nation because of the appearance of people with extra weight. Considering the tendency presupposing that the situation will become worse and adherence to behavioral patterns outlined above, this problem will become one of the most topical issues of healthcare. Obesity is a significant and complex problem that demands critical alterations in dietary habits, lifestyles, and physical exercises to improve the situation.

Background

The current situation related to the discussed problem is difficult and complicated by multiple factors. In accordance with WHO reports, more than 1,9 billion adults are overweight, while 650 million are obese (WHO, 2018). Additionally, 340 million children globally suffer from problems with extra weight, which means that in the future, a significant deterioration of the situation can be expected (WHO, 2018).

In the last two decades, obesity rates tripled, and the preservation of this negative tendency is forecasted (WHO, 2018). The scope of the problem is also evidenced by the fact that the given factor remains one of the primary causes of death in the majority of developed countries, characterized by the high quality of life among populations. For this reason, there is a critical need for the intervention with the primary goal to find an appropriate solution and alter the current perspective on this disputable issue.

Significance

The significance of the problem is proven by the fact that it can result in the emergence and development of multiple dangerous diseases. For instance, the latest population studies show that obesity is one of the most critical independent risk factors impacting the appearance of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (Kyrou, Randeva, Tsigos, Kaltsas, & Weickert, 2018). It comprises 90% of all diagnosed cases, which means that extra weight can be taken as the primary cause for the development of critical diseases deteriorating the quality of people’s lives.

Additionally, there is a direct correlation between the body mass index (BMI) and the risk of heart attack or stroke (Kyrou et al., 2018). Obese people are more predisposed to ischemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (Kyrou et al., 2018). Finally, the given problem preconditions the emergence of multiple issues with the reproduction system both in men and women, which is a central problem for the health of the nation.

Rationale

In such a way, there is a clear rationale for the investigation of the given problem. Multiple research works and studies state that if the existing tendency preserves, global health will face a set of undesired effects, including higher mortality rates, decreased lifespan, and lower quality of life (WHO, 2018). Moreover, children become especially vulnerable if to speak about extra weight. Being not experienced enough to control their nutrition, they consume products that damage their bodies. Many parents also lack appropriate health literacy levels to explain the danger of particular products or elements (Kyrou et al., 2018).

In such a way, the scope of the problem, its significance for the modern world, and the further deterioration of the situation are the main factors that justify the selection of the given topic and the necessity of its in-depth research.

Treatment

As it has already been stated, obesity is a complex problem that depends on many factors such as dietary habits, physical activity, and lifestyle patterns. For this reason, today, the dominant perspective on effective intervention presupposes approaches that affect all these domains and precondition the emergence of positive changes in them. At the same time, the positive impact on pharmacological treatment is doubted.

It can guarantee fast effects; however, the absence of the appropriate change in mentalities might result in the reoccurrence of the problem and new cases of obesity (Haire-Joshu & Tabak, 2016). For this reason, the combination of physical exercises along with the appropriate choice of products is taken as one of the possible ways to solve the existing problem without using expensive or dangerous pills or even surgical interventions.

Dietary approaches remain popular methods to struggle against obesity because of their availability to wide populations and positive effects that can be achieved due to the adherence to various models. The recent research shows, there are multiple proven positive effects of this sort of intervention (Haire-Joshu & Tabak, 2016). However, there is a need to consult with a specialist to ensure that the selected scheme is effective and safe enough.

For instance, there are low, very low, and moderate fat diets that should be utilized regarding the peculiarities of patients’ states (Haire-Joshu & Tabak, 2016). Another positive aspect of this approach is a shift in people’s mentalities that precondition the recognition of the importance of products and consideration of various types of nutrients. The existence of harmful additives and so-called fast food have a serious impact on people’s health. For this reason, the improved dietary behavior should presuppose the exclusion of these types of products from the ratio.

Physical exercises are also taken as one of the effective ways to achieve success in struggling against obesity. One of the primary causes of the emergence of problems with BMI is the limited mobility and absence of activity that is needed to burn fat. The modern environment promotes the increased level of comfort that is characterized by the gradual decrease in an effort that should be made to perform a certain action (Haire-Joshu & Tabak, 2016).

For this reason, multiple individuals face the risk of becoming obese because of the lack of movement. From this perspective, physical exercises become a potent tool that can be used to solve the problem with BMI and provide persons with a chance to improve the state of their bodies by decreasing their weight and ensuring the increased quality of their life.

There is also a perspective emphasizing the critical importance of radical change in both dietary habits and physical activity levels. The idea of a healthy lifestyle includes the need to alter the current individuals’ approaches to their behaviors with the primary aim to achieve the desired goals.

Specialists working with obese people state that the given method remains the most desirable option in the modern environment as, along with the decrease in BMI, it also helps to reduce the risk of heart attack, ischemia, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes (Haire-Joshu & Tabak, 2016). That is why the healthcare sector considers the attainment of shifts in patients’ mentalities the most effective intervention that can help to improve the quality of clients’ lives significantly, which is one of the primary goals of the whole sphere.

Education

Finally, among the reasons that contribute to the appearance and development of obesity among adults and children, the lack of information about risk factors and severe complications holds leading positions. In accordance with surveys conducted among patients experiencing this problem, they had a vague idea about the harmful impact of consumed products or the absence of appropriate physical activity levels (Haire-Joshu & Tabak, 2016).

Moreover, only 15% of respondents realized the existence of the direct correlation between obesity and stroke, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes (Haire-Joshu & Tabak, 2016). For this reason, the promotion of higher health literacy levels remains the major concern of nurses and other health workers. It is fundamental to introduce specific education and courses for people to stay informed about the existing problem and be able to struggle with it when the first signs emerge.

Conclusion

Altogether, obesity should be taken as one of the most important problems of the modern healthcare sector. Today, there are many people who suffer from high BMIs, and, which is worse, there is a gradual deterioration of the situation as the lack of activity and harmful products create the basis for the further evolution of the problem. Under these conditions, there is a critical need for intervention that might help to solve this problem. Among the most effective ones, specialists recommend alterations in the lifestyle, including better dietary habits and additional physical exercises. Such treatment can demonstrate better outcomes in all groups of patients if compare with the pharmaceutical approaches or surgical interventions.

References

Haire-Joshu, D., & Tabak, R. (2016). Preventing obesity across generations: Evidence for early life intervention. Annual Review of Public Health, 37, 253-271. Web.

Kyrou, I., Randeva, H., Tsigos, C., Kaltsas, G., & Weickert, M. (2018). Clinical problems caused by obesity. End text. Web.

WHO. (2018). Obesity and overweight. Web.