Qualitative Study Evaluation on Girlhood Betrayals of Women

Subject: Nursing
Pages: 3
Words: 845
Reading time:
4 min
Study level: PhD

Purpose of the Study

The article under analysis was entitled “Girlhood Betrayals of Women Childhood Trauma Survivors in Treatment for Addiction” and written by Grabbe et al. (2016). The study aimed at examining the perspectives of females who faced neglect and abuse in their childhood and their perspective regarding their experiences and other aspects. The authors attempted to conceptualize possible areas and interventions that could be effective in prevention and treatment.

Design, Sampling Techniques, and Data Collection

Grabbe et al. (2016) employed the qualitative design based on the analysis of interviews of eight women who were exposed to abuse and neglect in their childhood and received addiction treatment. The authors provided the necessary details regarding the use of data collection methods and gave the corresponding justifications. The semi-structured interviews included open-ended questions regarding the participants’ views on the abuse they were exposed to and substance use. Purposive sampling was the data collection method used during the study, and the participants received a 20$ gift card. Since the researchers explored the attitudes of women, voluntary involvement was critical as in such a situation, the participants are more open and willing to share. Hence, purposeful sampling is a justifiable data collection method for the study. The women who reported childhood abuse during their visit to a primary-care facility were recruited. The exclusion criteria included limited English proficiency, intoxication, and acute distress.

Data Analysis

Grabbe et al. (2016) also provide quite a proper description of the data analysis process that lasted for two years. The authors used thematic analysis of the eight interviews, grouping events and themes that emerged. The interviews were transcribed, reread, discussed, and reviewed multiple times. Field notes were also analyzed, and when all themes were elicited from the interview transcripts, the analysis process was terminated.

Theoretical Framework

One of the strengths of the article in question is the description of the theoretical framework that guided the research. Freyd’s Betrayal Trauma Theory (BTT) was utilized as the theoretical paradigm for the study, which is an appropriate choice since the researchers reported that the theme of betrayal was one of the most apparent commonalities between the interviews. Grabbe et al. (2016) analyzed the participants’ accounts in terms of the levels of betrayal they mentioned.

Literature Review

Although the article does not contain a clear-cut literature review section (which is a certain weakness), the authors support their claims with an appropriate number of studies that are relevant, reliable, and valid. In the section under the heading “Framework for the Levels of Betrayal,” Grabbe et al. (2016) describe the process of reviewing literature that was implemented during the data collection and analysis stages. The researchers identified some of the most recurrent themes, which turned out to be betrayal and started research into this issue. This approach is appropriate for the purposes of the study that aimed at exploring people’s attitudes towards certain experiences and events.


It is possible to apply the trustworthiness criteria developed by Lincoln and Guba that include credibility, confirmability, transferability, and dependability (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2015). The credibility of the study in question is quite sufficient as the methods utilized by the researchers were appropriate for attaining the established goals. However, it could be improved by enhanced verification and validation. Transferability is quite high as Grabbe et al. (2016) provide a review of studies based on a similar analytical basis. Thus, the analytic generalization of the present research is quite high. The dependability of this study is also sufficient, which can be illustrated by the review of literature on betrayal and the perspectives of people exposed to childhood abuse. Confirmability is ensured by the authors’ references to other studies characterized by similar findings. Therefore, the trustworthiness of the study under review is rather high, although some improvements could be made.

Study Findings and Resulting Implications

The primary findings of the study include an almost complete absence of the support of participants by their families or communities. As mentioned above, betrayal was the central theme that emerged during the interviews, and four levels of betrayal were identified. The primary level was associated with the participants’ victimization, and secondary betrayal was linked to the negligence or indifference of other members of the family. The tertiary level of betrayal referred to the failure of the authorized people in the community to get involved, and the quaternary betrayal was associated with self-betrayal that was the major reason for substance use. These findings are valuable for further analysis and use in prevention and treatment interventions.

Study’s Importance and Relevance for Nurse Practitioners

This study is of high importance for nurse practitioners working in various clinical settings. When providing care to females reporting childhood abuse and substance use, nurses can apply the findings described in the study to shape the provision of services and utilized approaches. Nursing professionals will be able to provide effective and helpful patient education services that can be instrumental in improving patient outcomes. The participants may be informed about the corresponding services (hospital- or community-based). Finally, nurses will better understand the needs of a certain population.


Grabbe, L., Ball, J., & Hall, J. (2016). Girlhood betrayals of women childhood trauma survivors in treatment for addiction. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 48(3), 232-243.

Melnyk, B., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2015). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare (3rd ed.). Wolters Kluwer.