The distinctions that exist between the right and left hemispheres of the brain are at the root of the conditions known as split-brain patients and lateralization of function. Furthermore, the concept of hemispheric lateralization, according to Allen et al. (2021) research expounds that each hemisphere of the brain is accountable for a unique set of functions. Each of these functions is primarily associated with the body’s right or left side (Allen et al., 2021). As a result, this study is essential in noting that lateralization of the brain conducts unique activities. For example, it is thought that separate regions of the brain are responsible for managing cognition and behavioral actions (Allen et al., 2021). In this way, this research revolutionized brain surgery activity. Both Paul Broca’s post-mortem examination of two individuals with Hugo-Karl Liepmann’s and aphasia work regarding apraxia contributed to the discovery of brain lateralization (Friedrich et al., 2019). These studies showed that the brain’s left hemisphere is engaged in communication and motion.
These studies underscored cerebral dominance; precisely, the left hemisphere of the brain is the part that is involved in the regulation of both mental and behavioral activities. Myers and Sperry came to this conclusion after conducting a split-brain experiment with cats (Vaddiparti et al., 2021). They hypothesized that to acquire knowledge, notwithstanding having a divided brain, one must be taught the topic or subjects being studied. Such research conducted on people with split brains has shown that both halves of the brain are engaged in autonomous functioning while also demonstrating that the two halves of the brain are not equally capable of completing activities.
Further investigation would consist of making an effort to normalize the information gleaned from split-brain patients while they were being evaluated. In a similar vein, significant disparities in operation have been uncovered between the left and right hemispheres of the brain. It is essential for cognitive neuroscientists exploring this topic to comprehensively understand the various concepts associated with lateralization of the brain, autonomous functioning, and cerebral dominance. All of these aspects of split-brain research are essential to the study that Marc Dax completed, as well as the report that he wrote.
The psychological illness that will be examined is Korsakoff’s syndrome. Subsequently, it is defined as alcoholism and causes significant amnesia and, in some instances, mortality attributed to thiamine deficiency (Arts et al., 2017). Korsakoff’s syndrome: a critical review. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. According to the evidence provided, the symptomology of this condition comprises difficulties with sensory and motor function, in addition to impairments with the liver and the digestive tract (Arts et al., 2017). The harm done by this ailment often affects the medial thalamus and the hypothalamus, in addition to other significant regions of the brain. As a result, a wide range of mental and emotional issues are associated with identifying this condition. The development of Korsakoff’s syndrome makes it difficult for researchers to determine which hemisphere of the brain is accountable for the amnesia linked with the condition, which is one of the primary causes of worry.
A publication in Neuropsychology Review describes the essential therapy to attain a favorable prognosis for Korsakoff’s syndrome. Due to the fact that Korsakoff’s syndrome often starts with Wernicke’s, it is vital for the affected person to start taking thiamine orally to prevent a determination of Korsakoff (Arts et al., 2017). Following an established diagnosis of Korsakoff’s syndrome, the therapy often entails the infusion of a greater quantity of thiamine, usually two percent of the human body. Generally, behavioral therapies for the illness involve behavior counseling, alcohol detoxification, and fulfillment of an alcohol addiction treatment. Since alcohol depletes the body of thiamine, it is essential for the individual to eliminate both the substance and the behaviors that lead to its use. Importantly, bearing the initial idea about the commencement and hemisphere management of amnesia in mind. Thence, this offers more possibilities for study to identify which hemisphere is engaged in memory loss and which section of the brain’s primary system is responsible for it.
The natural sleep cycle of human beings is governed by our circadian rhythm, which follows a pattern that repeats itself every 24 hours. Therefore, it is possible for humans to keep their circadian sleep-wake cycles consistent in every environment, even in settings where there are no time signals to indicate whether it is day or night or it is bright or dim outside. Good sleep, especially at night, is always characterized by eight hours; nevertheless, a sleep of fewer than five hours was observed to be damaging to a regular sleep-wake routine since an individual would be unusually exhausted despite having slept. During the course of development, humans are repeatedly reminded to get a night of good sleep, which is normally explained as eight hours of sleep.
An electroencephalogram (EEG), an electrooculogram (EOG), and an electromyogram may be used to quantify the many phases of sleep that people go through when people are asleep. These stages are referred to as the psychophysiological stages of sleep (EMG). Alpha waves are characterized by having larger amplitudes but lower frequencies, and each stage has its unique set of alpha wave characteristics. The first stage of drowsiness is characterized by a low voltage and high frequency in the EEG, which dulls vigilant human alertness. Stage two is characterized by K complexes and sleep spindles. The third stage is characterized by the appearance of delta waves, which are the EEG’s biggest but also the slowest. Stage four, the final stage, marks the onset of a cycle of repeated sleep phases.
Dreaming is often connected with non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, in which dreams typically take the shape of a tale or an autonomous experience. Dreaming is consistent with the normal sleep cycle since it frequently happens during the first sleep stage and in real-time. Freud postulated that dreams are restrained forms of unwanted desires that cannot be satisfied owing to social constraints. Owing to the 24-hour natural cycles of human bodies, disrupting a person’s sleep cycle may be harmful. Exceptions such as rotating shifts and jet lag are detrimental to sleep because they demand people to be awake when they would ordinarily be sleeping and vice versa, impairing alertness and productivity.
Several different means have been used to study and explain the human emotional spectrum. Human emotions are produced due to a response from outside stimuli, ranging from fear to sadness to anger. A noted explanation of motions came from Delaporte’s Anatomy of the passion. He posited in his work that human emotions are the product of evolution and thus compared the emotions of different species to obtain a better understanding of their origin. While Delaporte’s notion appears to be sound in its basis, in his theory, he presents the idea that body language and emotion will match, but he also presents a theory of opposites, which can be confusing to a non-researcher.
The James-Lange theory and the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion are the next two ideas utilized to describe emotion. According to Stanojlović et al. (2021), both of these theories are now in use. Their hypotheses revolved around the autonomic nervous system, often known as the ANS. According to their hypotheses, the ANS would collect knowledge about an event and create physiological reactions like a racing heart and sweaty hands (Stanojlovićet al., 2021). The Cannon-Bard hypothesis considers emotion as a parallel to awareness rather than having any link to causality, which is the primary distinction between the two. These hypotheses would collapse under their weight if there was insufficient evidence to support the two competing explanations.
The most plausible explanation is found in the modern biopsychological viewpoint derived from the previously mentioned research. It takes into account a variety of facets that are connected to feelings, and it represents the emotional experience in an accurate manner from the beginning to the end of the series. In accordance with this concept, cognition, perception, and the physiology of emotions interact with one another to produce an emotional response to a stimulus. In spite of this, each of the guiding principles is capable of having an effect on the others.
Several physiological systems are involved in human sleep, including critical organs, for example, the heart and the lungs. However, the brain is the most crucial system for appropriately controlling sleep. During sleep, the human body undergoes a balanced state of recuperation, during which the brain emits waves that form distinct stages and phases of sleep. The hypothalamus contains the first two regions responsible for controlling sleep, the rear and anterior hypothalamus, respectively. The posterior hypothalamus is engaged in sleep enhancement, while the anterior hypothalamus is implicated in alertness promotion. The basal forebrain and midbrain are two more brain regions engaged in the same activities. The reticular formation is an additional region of the brain engaged in sleep. This region is involved directly in sleep and wakefulness because of the REM-sleep nuclei that it generates.
Caudal reticular creation is the location of biological components known as rapid eye movement (REM) nuclei. These nuclei are crucial in the process of sustaining sleep. Melatonin is another hormone that plays a role in falling asleep and staying asleep. Melatonin is a hormone that originates from serotonin. Serotonin is significantly important for the production of circadian sleep in humans, particularly when the environment is dark. Melatonin is produced when serotonin levels are significantly low. An additional piece of evidence comes from a meta-analysis that looked at 17 separate studies and found that exogenously produced melatonin plays a statistically significant part in the process of getting people to sleep. Melatonin is another essential molecule that has a role in the treatment of sleep disorders and other related difficulties. It has been used in the treatment of insomnia in some individuals and in the treatment of blind patients who lacked a light-dark synchronization mechanism in their eyes. Melatonin is also one of the compounds that are employed to help in the process of rhythmically regulating sleep.
Allen, H. N., Bobnar, H. J., & Kolber, B. J. (2021). Left and right hemispheric lateralization of the amygdala in pain. Progress in Neurobiology, 196, 101891.
Delaporte, F. (2022). Anatomy of the passions. In Delaporte, F (Ed.), In Anatomy of the Passions. Stanford University Press.
Friedrich, P., Anderson, C., Schmitz, J., Schlüter, C., Lor, S., Stacho, M., Strocke, F.,Grimshaw, G & Ocklenburg, S. (2019). Fundamental or forgotten? Is Pierre Paul Broca still relevant in modern neuroscience? Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 24(2), 125-138.
Parrino, L., & Pavesi, G. (2017). When sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) met Charles Darwin and Francis Galton. Neurology, 89(5), 502-505.
Stanojlović, O., Šutulović, N., Hrnčić, D., Mladenović, D., Rašić-Marković, A., Radunović, N., & Vesković, M. (2021). Neural pathways underlying the interplay between emotional experience and behavior, from old theories to modern insight. Archives of Biological Sciences, 73(3), 361-370.
Vaddiparti, A., Huang, R., Blihar, D., Du Plessis, M., Montalbano, M. J., Tubbs, R. S., & Loukas, M. (2021). The evolution of corpus callosotomy for epilepsy management. World Neurosurgery, 145, 455-461.