Sung, Young Hee., Kwon, Gak., Ryu, Eunjung. 2008. Blended Learning on Medication Administration for New Nurses: Integration of E-Learning and Face-To-Face Instruction in the Classroom. Nurse Education Today, 28(8), 943-952
The topic is very precise and sets the context of the study by highlighting the exact research problem. The title basically outlines the premise that the research is based on and the title does not appear like a research question but a statement of belief by the researchers.
The article is has a very concise abstract that addresses all the aspects of the report in terms of processes of study, the reliability of the methodology, validity of analyses and the results. The researchers have tried to develop cohesive and unified study that explains and expounds the specifics of the study. Besides, the abstract is very succinct interpretation of the research. The abstract is a summary of the research and therefore meets criteria of a good abstract.
The purpose of the introduction is to set up the reader to comprehend what the research was based on. The introduction of this report begins by declaring that medication administration was one of the main and major roles of nurses. In risk management and ensuring of quality nursing, improving the process was necessary. The problem statement is simple to identify as it is the topic sentence of the introduction. Of particular importance is the problem of research. Improving the quality of nursing services, reduction of medical care, use of evidence based practice and current medication is of critical importance in the world where people are more cautious of their health (An, et al., 2000, p. 76: Latter et al., 2001, p. 146).
The situation in the report requires that urgent measures be taken to maximize the medication administration ability of the novice nurses so as to enhance their self confidence and integrity when handling clinical situations. The authors indicate that this is can be done by improving their knowledge of the medication administration and giving them the connection to the clinical practice, hence the key concept is addressed. Because of this, hospitals have been prompted to have educational classes that help nurses to better their skills. Even though there is not topic called “literature review” as it ought to be for research papers, this has been comprehensively been covered in the introduction comprehensively.
This means that the literature review missed this critical criterion. However, just like the normal literature review has to be draw from previous studies and current literature. The authors clearly depended on the pre-existing researcher to formulate this study. Moreover, the literature has been drawn from a number of sources. The literature includes a very extensive background. For the need to have better medication administration strategies and proper methods of minimizing risk, besides, new nurses could use old medication yet research may have introduced a lot of new medication in practice hence highlighting on purpose of study (Maag, 2004, p. 29). The continuous research has put nurses on their toes and they have to be on a better position to interpret analysis and understand new research outcomes and be able to them in their practice as evidence based study (Chung, 2000, p. 149).
Beyond extensive use of various secondary resources to prepare for this research, the researchers also seem to have greatly relied on the new and emerging literature to develop observations tools and find justification of their methodology. Their sampling, their data and its analyses are all based on the pre-existing literature search.
More importantly, the researchers have been able to point out the gaps that exist in the current literature and this brings out the need why research has to be done. They suggest that few researchers have able to study the problem of medication administration in new and novice nurses to offer recommendations for solutions. Patients refuse to be attended to by new or novice nurses as a result these nurses fail to gain that practical experience and this affects their self-confidence (Benson, 2004, p. 63). This study offers and important step in furthering the understanding of the problem of new nurses and how to improve their practical experience and more so in current medication.
The researchers have explicitly stated that their study was a quasi-experiment with non-equivalent groups design. As such they used two major models to carry out the study. It was the traditional classroom method verses the blended learning with e-learning both being made available to the experiment and the control groups.
The aim of the study as standards research paper must be is clearly stated and that was ‘the study was to determine the impact of the issues of medication education program that have been introduced by a number of institutions to solve the problems of medication administration challenges facing new nurses. The strategies used is the blended learning with e-learning for the new nurses so that they can improve their knowledge of medication, self –efficiency in the administration of proper medication in the best way and general satisfaction level of this type of learning program (Kim et al., 2004, p. 98). The aims were definitely draw from the literature review and the gaps that the researcher were able to draw from the pre-existing literature as such these aims address the gap and are consistent to the literature search conducted hence are very relevant for this research and will be of great benefit to the readers.
The study design as already highlighted was a quasi-experimental technique and the tradition model of training nurses in the classrooms was studies along the blended learning where e-learning has been incorporated in the classroom study (Babenko-Mould, et al., 2004, p. 152). These were both administered to the experimental group and the control group for later evaluation and analyses. This study methodology is one of the rigorous study models in scientific and medical research. The reason was that the method offers good comparative opportunity between the control and the experimental group in a prospective study. The outcomes can be analyzed by use of simple methods of analysis like the cohort method. To ensure interpretability of the study was clear, the research has the pre test experiment before administering the intervention to the two groups and then consequently conducted post test one and two after some time intervals. The tests were compared to rate the changes in terms of improvements made. The participants knew what was going on and they had their own interpretation of the two methods of study and this could have affected the result legitimacy especially the external validity hence also having an impact on the possibility of the results being generalizeable.
Participants: the subject were clearly identified and described by the authors. They included new nurses who had just been recruited at the Samsung Medical Center in the department of internal medicine and surgery. The sample size was 50 nurses with 26 being allocated the blended learning with e-learning (internet material) while 24 were taken through the traditional classroom teaching by lectures. The sample size showed representativeness though it was quite small and in a limited location therefore it could be inadequate.
Data collection and measurement: this addressed the knowledge and self efficacy of the process of administering medication in new nurses for the control and the experimental groups. The participants received face to face instructions and the experimental group received additional web-based learning program besides the classroom instructions during the period of study (Choi, 2001, p. 23). The instructions ran for 2 weeks and the participants were taken to practical experience for 4-8 weeks. A post test was conducted after the programs. The self efficacy in administration of medication was assessed for over 6 months. The key variables were operationalised in terms of tests (both pre and post tests). The specific instruments were identified like the instruction design theory of Gagne and Brigg as it is instituted by Network-Based Instructional System Design (NBISD) model for teaching the participants.
The study is that it took into consideration the ethical concerns of participants and the processes. It was approved by the clinical nursing review board of Samsung medical centre. This body ensures protection of the study participant and human rights in general. This therefore is a huge triumph to the legitimacy of the outcomes (Lee & Choi, 2002, p. 74). Even though they could be accurate and useful, they did protect the participants and the research itself from moral and legal issues surrounding researches.
The outcomes of the study proved the hypothesis of the authors to be correct. Like previous studies on related topic, there were some significant changes and differences in the outcomes of the research (Kala & Youngwanichsate, 2008, p. 27). The knowledge of medication administration following the study was founds to be higher in the groups that underwent a blended program of education (82.21, SD = 8.75) compared to the group that used the conventional lectures only program (67.92, SD = 7.17). The differences were attributable to the procedures of the experimental treatment. The statistical result of quasi-experiment were properly described and represented in summary form in tables. Every variable of the study was also measured for the variables. With two independent variables and groups to study, it was relevant that the researchers developed a way of addressing the relationship among the participants and effect on the dependent variables. Generally, the significance differences recorded are quite limited in scope and the entire results are not essentially valid or indicative (Sung et al., 2005, p. 1116).
Discussion, Limitations and Implications
The study investigated the efficacy of the new medication administration e-learning program based on the ability to educate the new nurses and developing their skills and confidence (Haigh, 2004, p. 548: Kim, 2001, p. 364). Result show that the knowledge definitely increased following the completion of the program compared to the control group. The discussion is written appropriately and covered the ideas covered in the result section and the values statements developed are based on the results (Jeffries, 2001, p. 325). This therefore means that the interpretation of the results is property addressed in this section. Just like other research studies these authors discuss the results in this section.
The results are interpreted here as well and the authors describe the blended learning as having been very effective program. It properly taught the nurses proper medical administration strategies and they build self confidence to execute their tasks as professional nurses (Jeffries, 2001, p. 325). Looking at the impact of the limitations of the study on discussion and interpretation, the exogenous variable may have had an impact and were not clearly excluded from interfering. Basically difficulties to control the exogenous variable affected ability to evaluate a 6 month program versus an already developed education systems which the nurses had gone through (Haigh, 2004, p. 548).
My understanding of the role of nurses of to provide quality medical care based on current state of technology and knowledge and in the most professionally competent way possible.
The researchers seem to be well convinced that the outcomes of their studies was relevant though they have identified some issues that should be addressed by future researches like the factors which affect medication administration capabilities of new nurses as well as the type and number of mistakes or errors they make (Fu-In et al., 2005, p. 449). They also suggest that e-learning should be applied to the experienced nurses as well and should be made part of orientation for health facilities.
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