World Health Organization abbreviated as (WHO) is the appointed organization by the United Nation (UN) that usually oversees public health worldwide, this organization has the authority to regulate and mandates that public health policies are applied for the welfare of the public all over the world. This organization also offers humanitarian aid in supplication of health associated alms to countries that are suffering health epidemics (Akira, 2002).
This organization was founded on 7th April in the year 1948; the main offices of this organization are located in Geneva, Switzerland. This organization was formerly known as the Health Organization and was under the arm of League of Nations, most of the mandates are adapted from the antecedent organization but they have more enforcing authority (World Health Organization, 1948).
Types of Toxicology Data
The type of toxicology data which would be used is the long term and short term effects of DDT. The history of WHO on its mandates are relative with its constitution based on the objective of this agency, from formulation the constitution of this agency states that it shall oversee that all human beings regardless of the race, color and origin shall receive quality health care at all cost. One of the major roles that this agency oversees is fighting and disease prevention, it’s mostly centralizing on major infectious maladies that threaten the welfare of the public. This organization is also in charge of promoting universal health all over the world without discrimination and favor (World Health Organization, 1948).
This organization was formulated from the first World Health Day which was held on 7th April, 1948, and was the original idea of Jawaharlal Nehru from India, an attending member of the 26th member state of United Nation. This idea was endorsed and ratified on the same day and was incorporated abolishing the Health Organization and was given the mandates of this organization and was later given more authority to exercise its mandates all over the world (Basch, 1991). However, after formulation most of the activities were authorized by League of Nation and was controlled by the interim commission. The final transfer to United Nation was finalized in the summer of 1946 during the International Health conference, this transfer was overseen by the General Assembly Resolution. In 1st January, 1947 all the mandates and authority were in placed on World Health Organization with the incorporation of International Hygiene Publique.
WHO Current Position
Currently the World Health Organization is facing a lot of challenges as there is a scale of rise in infectious diseases. This organization has been universally coordinating with each member state to try and eradicate infectious diseases that are proving to be a headache such as malaria, swine flu, SARS, AIDS and Tuberculosis. This organization has been coordinating with the government and other agency in sponsoring to treat, eradicate and controlling these diseases.
WHO is currently the only organization all over the world that has been supporting and also mounting safe circulation of drugs, vaccines and pharmaceutical diagnostics in the hope of eradicating infectious diseases all over the world (Bastos, 1999). One of the major successes that have been associated with this organization since 1980 is the complete eradication of the chicken pox epidemic that had been a headache for the organization for nearly three years. This went in the history as being the first disease that has been eliminated through human efforts.
Current objective for WHO is to eliminate Polio in the next five years. This organization has funded drives and sponsored anti Polio project all over the world mostly in third world countries as they more prone to infection than developed nations. The drive “Help kick Polio out of Africa” has been one major activity that this organization has been spearheading in Africa over the last six years. WHO claims that within the next five years this epidemic would be a thing of the past, as they are enforcing eradication of Polio powerfully using all available mechanisms that can be allocated to this drives.
Another campaign that this organization has been sponsoring is the HIV/AIDS drive aimed mostly in Africa states in 2006 the official HIV/AIDS campaign was endorsed and commenced in Zimbabwe, this has seen many other states incorporated into this campaign and this included the UNAIDS on distribution of condoms in the aim of prevention of HIV in most of the middle class nations.
Assess of toxicity of DDT
Recently WHO fully embarked on endorsing anti-malaria campaigns by introducing Indoors Residual Spraying (IRS) as the primary intervention that is aimed at reducing and disrupting the transmission of the epidemic (MacDonald, 1999). This implementation has also been incorporated with issuance of mosquito nets in nations that are worst hit by this disease. Most West African nations are the beneficiaries of this campaign as they fall in the category of the areas that WHO have announced to be the red zones in malaria affliction. WHO has been supplying DDT and other required pesticides that are required in this region for eradication of malaria and has proved effective in reduction of malaria morbidity and transmission within this regions that are worst affected.
MacDonald (1999) acknowledges that the Global Malaria Control Intervention program is one of the WHO organization 2015 development goals on health target. This campaign has been fully funded and preventive measures have been dispatched to the areas that are in need, Insecticides Treated Nets (ITNs) have been issued out globally to all nations that are in threat of this epidemic. Treatment drives have already been commenced and success has been recorded mostly in elimination of transmission due to use of insecticides and treatment offered to the afflicted victims. The organization has announced that it shall meet its millennium goal of eradicating malaria and reducing transmission by zero tolerance.
Another development that was halted due to the safety of the vaccine is the pandemic influenza campaign. In 2007 WHO experts held a meeting in Geneva to analyze this epidemic following the clinical trails that were performed in the development of pandemic influenza vaccine. The focus was mostly on the diet of the population as they considered that consumption of vegetables and fruits can assist in eradicating this epidemic other than the use of the vaccine. The vaccine was given an okay and has been tested on adult and is further developed to suit in the children and the elderly requirements. This is aimed at commencing eradication of pandemic influenza later this year in full effect (Basch, 1991).
Exposure and response associated with DDT
Exposure to DDT which has been used for control of malaria has proved that it has advance effect on the reproductive systems of those exposed to it such as; premature births, low quality semen quality, shortens duration of lactation and irregular menstruation cycle.
WHO from September 2009 has embarked on sponsoring regional health policies and was approved the same year by the Directing Council. This is aimed at production of research which shall be overseeing all health needs at national level are addressed. This shall also incorporate communicable diseases analysis and the impact they have on global health and health studies that are also sponsored by this drive (Akira, 2002).
Approval for use of DDT to combat malaria by WHO
WHO should not approve use of DDT due to its long term residue effects which has proved to be toxic when it was being used for control of Malaria. WHO organization, has been helping the world rid off most of the health hazard that disrupt the well being of the population of the earth from the history of its creation successfully. There is dire need for the existence of this organization as it helps in regulating infectious, communicable and contagious diseases all over the world. The work that this organization performs cannot be affected by most government capabilities.
- Akira, I. (2002). Global Community: The Role of International Organizations in the Making of the Contemporary World. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Basch, P. (1991). A Historical Perspective on International Health. Journal of Infectious Disease Clinical North America. 5 (2). Pp. 183-196.
- Bastos, C. (1999). Science in Emergency: Global Response to AIDS. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
- MacDonald, G. (1999). The Epidemiology and Control of Malaria. London, Oxford University Press.
- World Health Organization. (1948).Building for health: the work of the Interim Commission of the World Health Organization. New York: World Health Organization.