Acne Vulgaris: Clinical Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Subject: Other Medical Specialties
Pages: 2
Words: 587
Reading time:
3 min


Acne vulgaris is the most widespread skin condition that most people encounter, especially in adolescence. Facial skin diseases are the cause of both physical problems and various psychological sufferings of the patient. It occurs in 85% of people aged 12 to 25 years and 11% of people over 25 years (Berlin, 2019). This paper aims to investigate the clinical symptoms of acne vulgaris, its causes, diagnosis, and recommended treatment.

Main body

This type of acne occurs on the face, shoulders, back, and chest. The symptoms differ depending on the degree of lesion: mild, moderate, or severe. When a person has mild acne, they have whiteheads and blackheads but may also have inflamed pimples. Sebum secretion is increased, and the skin acquires a greasy shine. In the case of moderate acne vulgaris, one develops more white inflamed blemishes. Ultimately, severe conditions presume that the skin is covered with more solid pimples called cysts, which are the causes of deep abscesses (Berlin, 2019). Prolonged cystic acne can cause scarring, which has a form of small and deep retractions, hypertrophic scars, or keloids.

The specific reasons play a significant role in the development of vulgar acne. Primarily, the increased sebum production and imbalance of sebum lipids affect the skin. Second, acne may be a hereditary issue. Moreover, acne can result from an imbalance of sex hormones (as a rule, increased testosterone levels). Genetic predisposition is of primary importance in the occurrence of vulgar acne, the severity of its course, localization, prevalence, and sensitivity to treatment. According to German dermatologists, 45% of schoolchildren with nasty pimples had one, or both parents also noted pimples (Berlin, 2019). In contrast, only 8% of schoolchildren were vulgar pustules whose parents did not have pimples (Berlin, 2019). Genetic studies of twins also confirm hereditary predisposition to the appearance of vulgar acne.

Another major cause relates to the changes in the flora of the hair follicle and the development of an inflammatory reaction. Physiological and psychological factors affect the course of acne and should be diagnosed first (Oge et al., 2019). These include stress, depression, excessive consumption of carbohydrates, fatty and spicy foods, smoking, foci of focal infection, gastrointestinal diseases, menstrual disorders, increased sweating, and the use of fat-based cosmetics.

Undoubtedly, untimely treatment initiated against the background of rashes, scars, and pigmentation often worsens the general well-being. To diagnose this facial condition, one must resort to a healthcare specialist to assess the causes, contributing factors, and degree of severity (Oge et al., 2019). It is also essential to carry out a genetic test to eliminate the hereditary predisposition. The psychosocial impact should be evaluated as well to prevent the development of mental disorders.

The treatment of all ace Vulgaris stages includes eliminating keratinization disorders of the follicle, suppression of the microflora of follicles, anti-inflammatory measures, and external treatment and skin cleansing. Skin cleansing in patients with vulgar acne should be mild. It is preferable to wash one’s face using mild detergents twice a day, followed by funds for external therapy of acne. Light and laser therapy and antibiotics can be used in cases of moderate and severe forms.


In summary, acne vulgaris mainly occurs in adolescents and only a quarter of all cases need a medical examination. The primary roots of the disease are hormonal or lipid imbalance, yet, the hereditary predisposition is a significant factor as well. As a result, the condition is better to be examined at early stages to undergo mild treatment; in other cases, laser therapy and antibiotics are prescribed.


Berlin, A. (2019). Acne and rosacea: Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Taylor & Francis Group.

Oge, L. K., Broussard, A., & Marshall, M. D. (2019). Acne vulgaris: Diagnosis and Tteatment. American family physician, 100(8), 475–484.