Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Five Stages

Pyelonephritis is a bacterial-based kidney disease. It causes inflammatory processes in the human body, most often affecting one kidney. It can proceed in acute or chronic form; respectively, sometimes, it is hard to identify. Women are often exposed to pyelonephritis due to another disease, cystitis, after which kidney problems begin to appear (Muller, 2017). However, in old age, the percentage of sick men also increases. In addition, an infection of this kind can be caused by various accompanying bacteria, for example, E. coli. Microorganisms travel along the urinary tract, which connects the bladder and kidneys, and thus achieve their goal of locating the kidneys. In women, the urethra is shorter; respectively, it is easier for bacteria to get to their target. After suffering from prostate adenoma, men are also at risk. Due to the violation of urine flow, it becomes easier for bacteria to multiply.

Pyelonephritis often affects people with reduced immunity, diabetes mellitus, and genetic predisposition to the disease, or hormonal problems. The symptoms of pyelonephritis are quite pronounced. It can be fever, swelling of the face, general malaise, pain, discomfort in the lower back, trembling. Nausea and vomiting may also occur. Approximately every third patient experiences problems with urination and feels pain. On visual analysis, urine has an unnatural color, possibly blood impurities.

It is worth noting that only a doctor can diagnose kidney inflammation. Usually, it is not difficult for an experienced professional to diagnose pyelonephritis, which is done during the examination. However, for a more accurate diagnosis, laboratory tests are prescribed, including a clinical analysis of blood and urine. Instrumental research methods include ultrasound of the kidneys and abdominal cavity and computed tomography or X-ray that detect structural changes in the affected kidneys.

In the treatment of kidneys, antibiotics are mainly prescribed, and the patient must undergo an entire course of treatment to destroy the bacteria inside their body. Pain relievers are also prescribed for severe pain. For acute symptoms, bed rest is necessary. After normalization of the condition, moderate physical activity is recommended to restore the urination processes. In chronic pyelonephritis, the treatment regimen is strictly individual and is selected by the physician.

Reference

Muller, A. F. (2017). The kidney: Morphology, biochemistry, physiology. Elsevier Science.