Analysis of Anatomical and Physiological Cardiovascular Systems

Cardiovascular, nervous, and endocrine systems are essential for the human body because they regulate the functioning of various mechanisms that transmit signals and impulses about the environment to a person. Without these systems, the flow of information from a human’s brain to nerves and cells would not be possible. This essay will discuss specific questions that were covered in the course regarding the systems’ similarities, differences, and operations.

There are certain similarities in the nervous and endocrine systems according to their functions. The endocrine and nervous systems coordinate the body’s functions by reacting to stimuli. It should be mentioned that the part of the brain called the hypothalamus combines these two critical systems (Sargis, 2015). The hypothalamus is located at the base of the forebrain and regulates basic human needs such as sleep, hunger, and thirst.

Both systems support the body’s homeostasis and send signals to effector organs (Sargis, 2015). Nevertheless, there are differences in mechanisms of action of both functions. According to Osborn (n.d), the endocrine system contains glands that develop hormones to regulate body functions. In contrast, the nervous system is made of nerve cells that are in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves that align the body’s functions by transferring nerve signals (Osborn, n.d). Thus, there are common and different features of both systems.

If a patient is coming with bacterial disease, there can be an alteration in the white blood cell count that represent a part of the endocrine system. The alternation of leukocytes lies in the increase of white blood cells that are almost always higher than average (rarely average) due to the bacterial disease, according to Moyer (2018). The number of specific white blood cells, neutrophils, increases dramatically due to acute bacterial infections, and less mature cells may appear (Moyer, 2018).

It can be stated that intensive destruction of mature neutrophils leads to the active production of younger cells by the marrow (Huizen, 2018). Neutrophilic leukocytosis often occurs, since neutrophils are the most extensive group of white blood cells (Huizen, 2018). Changes in white blood cells help identify signs of bacterial infection by blood tests in adults.

The human heart that partially represents cardiovascular system that has four valves. The first two atrioventricular valves include the mitral valve (bicuspid valve) and the tricuspid valve (“Roles of Your Four Heart Valves,” 2016). These valves are situated between the atria and ventricles chambers. It is stated that the other two semilunar valves include the aortic and the pulmonary valves, which are located at the exit of the arteries outgoing from the heart (“Roles of Your Four Heart Valves,” 2016).

The function of valves is the prevention of the backward flow of blood. When the blood pressure in the atrium becomes equal to that in the ventricles or exceeds it, the atrioventricular valve opens into the ventricular cavity. When the increasing pressure in the ventricle begins to exceed that in the outflow vessels, semilunar valves open, and blood from the ventricles is expelled to the aorta and pulmonary trunk (“Cardiac cycle,” 2020).

When valves do not close fully, it leads to regurgitation (reverse flow) of blood that leads to aortic insufficiency that must be treated. When valves do not open properly, which causes valve stenosis, it results in difficulty in blood flow and its restriction (“Cardiac cycle,” 2020). Thus, it is crucial to know how the system is functioning to prevent various disorders.

To make a conclusion, one might say that cardiovascular, nervous, and endocrine systems support body homeostasis and ensure human’s survival by sending signals to cells and reacting to the external environment and its changes. The unique systems control the internal operations and help each other to sustain difficulties and failures. Therefore, the essence of material covered in the course profoundly explained dependencies, similarities, and differences of systems that maintain human life.


Cardiac cycle. (2020). Web.

Huizen, J. (2018). What are neutrophils and what do they do? Web.

Moyer, N. (2018). What Is leukocytosis? Web.

Osborn, R. (n.d.). Difference between endocrine system and nervous system. Web.

Roles of your four heart valves. (2016). Web.

Sargis, R. (2015). An overview of the hypothalamus. Web.