Cardiovascular disorders are a global problem that affects people in different parts of the world. Hypertension is a condition that is most often diagnosed in US patients (Huether & McCance, 2017). Thus, every medical professional need to understand the pathophysiology of such diseases and know what actions and characteristics can exacerbate the problem or lead to alterations and comorbidities. For example, people’s behavior can be a deciding factor in contributing to the occurrence of cardiovascular problems – smoking, alcohol, and a poor diet affect one’s body and put people at risk of developing a range of conditions. Hypertension and dyslipidemia are separate issues that can also make the body more susceptible to other events, such as myocardial infarctions (MIs). The pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders can be affected by one’s behavior and comorbidities, especially if they alter the pressure-natriuresis relationship and lipid levels in the blood.
Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Disorders
The main processes related to the development of cardiovascular disorders happen in veins and arteries. For example, hypertension occurs when the arteries suffer from an increase in peripheral vascular resistance or blood volume (Hammer & McPhee, 2014; Huether & McCance, 2017). Both systolic and diastolic pressure can rise as a result. Atherosclerosis is another cardiovascular disorder, which is caused by low-density lipoproteins’ oxidization that leads to the creation of fatty streaks in the aorta and arteries (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). As can be seen, any buildup or change in the arteries and veins’ structure causes the heart to experience difficulties. Many conditions affect the heart by increasing its workload and limiting the access to blood through arteries (Huether & McCance, 2017). As a result, the tissue can lose its initial characteristics, potentially causing MIs or heart failure.
One of the most challenging patient factors that can be examined is behavior. It is a set of habits, choices, and activities that people participate in every day. The correlation of one’s actions and cardiovascular disorders is highly researched, providing data about the dangers of smoking, alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and poor dieting decisions (Rakesh, Suresha, Varghese, & Joy, 2016). Unhealthy eating habits include regular consumption of foods high in lipids and salt which causes the buildup of plaques to increase. Moreover, people who include high-energy foods in their diet, eating processed and sugary meals are also at risk of having irregular blood pressure levels (Anderson et al., 2016).
Untreated hypertension and dyslipidemia are among the reasons for other cardiovascular conditions. Sustained hypertension, for example, exhausts the heart muscle and increases the pressure on the heart tissue, while cutting its supply of blood, nutrients, and oxygen (Huether & McCance, 2017). Dyslipidemia also decreases blood flow, leading to similar outcomes. Under the pressure and influence of these conditions, the heart can suffer from an MI, when the low blood flow damages the heart muscle. Hypertension is among the primary risk factors for an MI (Nascimento et al., 2017).
Cardiovascular disorders are being researched continuously, but their prevalence in the world remains high. Their pathophysiology, which involves an alteration in blood flow through veins and arteries, reveals that such conditions develop under the influence of many factors, including one’s environment and behavior. Poor eating habits and smoking increase the probability of cardiovascular problems and exacerbate its adverse outcomes. If such issues as hypertension and dyslipidemia are left untreated, they increase the risk of myocardial infarctions.
Anderson, T. J., Grégoire, J., Pearson, G. J., Barry, A. R., Couture, P., Dawes, M.,… Hegele, R. A. (2016). 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 32(11), 1263-1282.
Hammer, G. G., & McPhee, S. (2014). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (7th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Nascimento, F. S. H., Cavalcante, L. R., Zarife, A. S. A., Brito, L. L., Silva, C. D., & Maia, H. F. (2017). Factors associated to the history of acute myocardial infarction in hypertensive primary care users. Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health, 5(3), 101-109.
Rakesh, B., Suresha, B. S., Varghese, A. R., & Joy, E. T. (2016). Analysis of prevalence and risk factors for cardiovascular disorders. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(8), 1361-1373.