Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia


Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a medical condition associated with the aging process in the male population. While it is not regarded as a preventable ailment, its symptoms can be halted by lifestyle changes and medications (Corona, Vignozzi, Rastrelli, Lotti, Cipriani, & Maggi, 2014). The present paper offers an overview of pathophysiology, treatment, and patient education about the disease.

Pathophysiology and Causes

BPH is abnormal anatomy that causes harm to the body through the development of complications. The abnormal anatomy is a prostate adenoma or adenomata that causes benign prostatic obstruction (Huether & Mccance, 2016). The obstruction may damage the kidney or bladder and, therefore, must be diagnosed in due time. In simpler words, BPH is an enlargement of the prostate gland that can be detected through a digital rectal exam or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) monitoring (Huether & Mccance, 2016). The symptoms are associated with urethral compression making it painful for a patient to urinate. The primary cause of the condition is a natural aging process, as men over 40 often have low testosterone, high estradiol, and increased androgen (Corona et al., 2014). At the same time, there are modifiable risks, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension (Corona et al., 2014). In short, BPH is a common disease affecting the reproductive organs of the male population over 40 caused by hormone misbalance and unhealthy lifestyle.

Treatment and Patient Education

Treatment of the condition includes medications and altering lifestyle. The conventional treatment includes α1-adrenergic blockers and antiandrogen agents (Huether & Mccance, 2016). At the same time, Corona et al. (2014) suggest that lifestyle-altering through education about healthy eating, the importance of physical activity, and smoking cessation can improve the condition. Therefore, patients are advised to combine both of the methods mentioned above to manage the symptoms of BPH more efficiently.

Conclusion

BPH is a considerable bother for the male population in developed countries. The condition historically has been treated as a natural phenomenon that can be addressed through medical or surgical intervention (Corona et al., 2014). However, the present review shows that healthcare providers should consider providing patient education to halt the symptoms of the disease.

References

Huether, S., & Mccance, K. (2016). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, Mo: Mosby.

Corona, G., Vignozzi, L., Rastrelli, G., Lotti, F., Cipriani, S., & Maggi, M. (2014). Benign prostatic hyperplasia: A new metabolic disease of the aging male and its correlation with sexual dysfunctions. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2014, 1-14. doi: 10.1155/2014/329456