Monosaccharides are the smallest molecules of carbohydrates that the body absorbs after digestion of food and utilize them in the production of energy during cellular respiration. Glucose, galactose, and fructose are the three types of monosaccharides that exist in nature for they originate from cane sugar, milk sugar, and fruit sugar respectively.
Disaccharides are types of carbohydrates formed by the condensation of two monosaccharides molecules. Sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (galactose + glucose), and maltose (glucose + glucose) are three types of disaccharides that exist in nature.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates formed when monosaccharides polymerize through condensation to form long chains of monosaccharides.
Glycogen is an example of a polysaccharide that the body produces when storing excess glucose in the body while fiber is an example of an indigestible polysaccharide that plants produce as a structural material.
Insulin is the hormone that the body uses to stimulate the utilization of glucose in the body.
Caloric sweeteners are examples of carbohydrate ingredients that people add to various types of foods to sweeten them. The types of carbohydrates present in sweeteners are monosaccharides such as glucose, fructose, and dextrose, and disaccharides such as sucrose and trehalose. Potato recipes such as French fries and cereal recipes such as bran flakes and corn flakes contain carbohydrates in the form of starch, which is a polysaccharide.
Fruits and vegetables contain high fiber content, which is important in promoting the digestion of food and movement of bowels. Essentially, fiber is a polysaccharide form of carbohydrate that acts as roughage in dietary intake. Consumption of carbohydrates increases the glucose level in the blood resulting in the synthesis of glycogen and its storage in the liver.