Conceptual models, theories, and empirical indicators have an association and are the foundational basis of nursing knowledge. The application of these nursing models and theories is essential in nursing education, practice, and research. As DNP-prepared nurses, it is an expectation that we understand the linkages and are able to implement these concepts in practice to create positive outcomes. This paper will use Pender’s Health Promotion Model to examine how the Conceptual-Theoretical-Empirical (CTE) Structure can be implemented in practice. Research studies and findings will be summarized, and relevant examples will be applied and reviewed.
Translate and Apply the Selected Theory
Conceptual, theoretical, and empirical models are the C-T-E structure’s fundamental components and have an interdependent linkage for their application in research, nursing practice, and education. The components of Nola Pender’s health promotion model include the person, their environment, health, and nursing, with the person being the central element of the model (Butts & Rich, 2018). Pender’s model is comprised of three categories: Individuality and personal experiences, behavior-specifics cognitions, and affect and behavioral outcome. Pender believed that historical behaviors have direct and indirect effects on whether or not a person will adapt to healthy behaviors and lifestyle changes. Pender’s model was influenced by Albert Bandura’s social learning theory and Fishbein’s theory of reasoned action. In health promotion, nursing interventions were implemented to target behavior-specific variables. Nursing care plans were developed to effectively manage a large, diverse group of patients based on prior behavior, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, interpersonal factors, and situational factors (Butts& Rich, 2018). The last category in the HPM model is the behavioral outcome. Pender proposes that a commitment to a plan is the starting point of lifestyle changes and new behaviors. The act of commitment motivates the patient to change their behavior. Healthy outcomes are the direct result of health-promoting behaviors (Butts & Rich, 2018).
The three categories of the HPM individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and behavioral outcome.
Conceptual – Theoretical – Empirical Linkages
The major concepts of Pender’s model include person, environment, health, and nursing and view the patient holistically. The model also incorporates spiritual, cultural, biopsychosocial, and environmental attributes. In order to adequately address the patient holistically, a thorough assessment must be conducted. In a study applying Pender’s HPM model, Khodavesei et al. (2017) selected 108 eligible women and randomly assigned them to either an experimental group or a control group. A pre-test questionnaire was presented to the participants that included demographics, Pender’s HPM constructs, and nutritional behavior habits. The questionnaire was again disseminated two months later. The result of the study was positive and showed that training and education improved their nutritional behaviors (Khodavesei et al., 2017). This study addressed the spiritual, cultural, and psychosocial components of nutritional behaviors.
Evaluation of Research Findings
Having considered the following example, it may be outlined that whereas the HPM has a significant impact on the nursing practice as an empirical endeavor, the scope of the model’s application remains rather limited in the context. According to the researchers, the model’s theoretical basis is primarily based on the theory of social learning, which provides both nurses and patients with a relevant perspective on the attitude towards health (Khoshnood et al., 2018). Hence, when considering the theoretical constituent of the model structure, the following concepts are to be considered:
- Significance. In terms of this criterion, it was estimated that the HPM is relevant for the nursing practice, as its fundamentals encourage nurses to shift from the observation of the absence of illness to the promotion of healthy patterns among patients.
- Complexity. The theoretical basis of any model should presuppose its availability to be easily applied to the nursing practice. Hence, when speaking of the HPM, such variables as assessment, diagnosis, and nursing intervention construct a relatively complex model that could be successfully implemented to the real-life communication model with patients.
- Convergence. When assessing the theoretical basis of any model, it is of crucial importance to identify the extent to which the following approach might be applied to the overall public health management. Speaking of HPM, it may be outlined that the pattern of health promotion is applicable to real-life situations and nursing issues (Khoshnood et al., 2018).
Regarding the following aspects, it may be concluded that the theoretical basis of Pender’s HPM is primarily focused on the model’s availability in terms of the nursing practice and communication with patients on the subject of health promotion. When speaking of the theoretical constituent in the context of the CTE structure evaluation, it becomes evident that the theory of health promotion within the nursing paradigm is closely correlated with the concepts of environment, personality, and health. In order to secure the relevance of the model, it is necessary to dwell on the notion of empirical implementation of the HPM.
Evaluation of The Empirical Indicators
The application of any theoretical framework is one of the most significant outcomes of the concept, as the theory cannot be considered as relevant when it has no use in the empirical context. Thus, when analyzing the conceptual-theoretical-empirical linkages of the Pender’s HPM, the latter aspect is a decisive factor in terms of the evaluation of the model relevance. According to the empirical data, it may be outlined that the application of the HPM framework remains extremely relevant in terms of today’s nursing practice (Kamal Mirkarimi et al., 2018). For example, one of such studies was focused on the issue of hypertension among patients and the effect of HPM implementation in the nursing practice. In terms of the study, 420 patients were asked to undergo a survey based on the HPM in order to define the risk of hypertension-related diseases and health promotion levels (Kamal Mirkarimi et al., 2018). As a result, it was estimated that such an intervention was successful in terms of controlling the levels of hypertension and blood pressure among patients and introducing healthy nutrition patterns for the patients at risk of severe issues with blood pressure.
Evaluation of the utility and soundness of the practice theory
Having considered the following information, it may be concluded that the Pender’s Health Promotion Model may be analyzed with the help of the following patterns:
- Conceptual aspect. The model is related to the concepts of person, health, environment, and nursing.
- Theoretical aspect. The theory behind the model claims that the person’s health is directly correlated to his or her environment and individual attitudes to health. Once this concept is understood by the nurses, they are capable of providing patients with beneficial medical intervention.
- Empirical aspect. The evidence found in the studies shows that the application of the following model could be extremely beneficial in terms of timely intervention, assessment, and diagnosis.
Kamal Mirkarimi, S., Maghsoudloo, M., Berdi Ozouni-Davaji, R., Raeisi, V., Charkazi, A., & Raeisi, M. (2018). The determinants of hypertension and commitment to implementing a nutrition program: application of Pender health promotion model. Journal of Health Literacy, 3(1), 50-60.
Khodaveisi, M., Omid, A., Farokhi, S., & Soltanian, A. R. (2017). The Effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model in Improving the Nutritional Behavior of Overweight and Obese Women. Web.
Khoshnood, Z., Rayyani, M., & Tirgari, B. (2018). Theory analysis for Pender’s health promotion model (HPM) by Barnum’s criteria: a critical perspective. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 32(4).