Corpus Callosum is a band of white matter that connects the right and the left hemispheres of the brain. This band acts as a pathway through which communication takes place. In addition, the development of agenesis in the corpus callosum results in congenital disorder (Hetts et al., 2006). Agenesis is a defect that develops due to the partial or complete absence of corpus callosum. This state occurs during the prenatal stages of pregnancy where CC fails to develop completely or normally (Marie, 2011).
The defect develops due to the disruption of the fetal brain within the first few weeks of pregnancy. As a matter of fact, this factor has been found to inhibit brain development. Disruption can also be due to several factors such as genetic complications, rhesus factors, toxins, and prenatal infections. It is imperative to note that the degree of disruption can be worse if several of these factors are detected within the brain.
The development of ACC has been associated with behavioral changes. Most of the empirical research studies have demonstrated that ACC causes a wide range of neurological and behavioral effects (Marie, 2011). These effects can be externally visualized with the abrupt or significant changes in behavioral patterns of an individual. While such changes in behavior can be external, early diagnosis of the condition is also possible. In any case, early diagnosis of behavioral changes is usually recommended. One of the most outstanding features among individuals with this defect is that they largely share common and observable features.
However, these features in behavioral patterns vary a lot depending on the level of severity. For instance, behavior changes occur in several aspects such as cognitive, physical, social, and communication aspects (Hetts et al., 2006).
It is also worth mentioning that changes in behavioral patterns often result in individual differences. Most often, one of the most notable behavioral characteristics which result from this disorder is that an individual will develop compulsive behavior. In other words, one may be compelled to act in certain unique ways contrary to individual expectations. They are also restlessness with varying degrees of hyperactivity depending on the severity levels. Besides this, individuals depict features of social immaturity and have difficulty paying attention (Marie, 2011).
In a more remarkable way, cognitive changes are inevitable among individuals who suffer from the disorder (Hetts et al., 2006). This disorder is normally associated with mental retardation, an aspect that interferes with normal intelligence. Cognitive changes include delayed speech and language development. Commonly affected individuals have a problem with interpreting facial or nonverbal communication (Marie, 2011). In line with this, victims of ACC have a lack of abstract reasoning, cannot perform a complex task, or even solve problems. They also have limited insight into their own behavior and emotions.
There exists controversy over whether the brain hemispheres can communicate without the corpus callosum. Nevertheless, this controversy has not yet been resolved and research is still being done. The brain is specifically divided into two hemispheres (Marie, 2011). As such, both the right and left hemispheres have a set of different functions and anatomical features. For instance, the left hemisphere controls logical and analytical activities.
The right hemisphere performs functions such as visual imagery and also processes random information (Marie, 2011). This hemisphere has special abilities to control perceptual constancies. The fact that each hemisphere performs it own functions implies that they have to communicate with each other. Communication takes place through the nerve fibers which are known as corpus colossus. The latter fibers act as nerve pathway to relay information between the right and left hemispheres (Marie, 2011).
Hetts, S. et al. (2006). Anomalies of the corpus callosum: an NMR analysis of the phenotypic spectrum. Am. J. Roentgenol. 187(5): 1343–1348.