- Providing a theoretical background for relevant models.
- ARCC model as an evidence-based practice framework.
- Kotter and Cohen’s model as a change methodology.
- Introducing the models into a clinical practice environment.
- Both models are useful change methodologies.
- Stimulating evidence-based activities is critical in clinical practice.
Evidence-Based Practice Model
- ARCC model is a recognized evidence-based practice framework.
- The role of a mentor is seen as strategically critical (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2015).
- Quality care outcomes are achieved due to an evidence base.
- Inquiry, innovation, and solutions are the model’s components (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2015).
- Advanced practice nurses are the target audience.
- System and patient outcomes are addressed effectively.
- AARC model implies covering different aspects of the change process.
- Organizational behavior is one of the target areas (Melnyk et al., 2017).
- Evidence-based practice culture is the core of amendments.
- Mentorship contributes to enhancing nurses’ professional competencies (Melnyk et al., 2017).
- Improving organizational outcomes is a natural result.
- Change initiatives help address workplace culture.
Implementing a Practice Change: ARCC Model
- AARC model is a convenient framework for a personal clinical practice environment.
- The model contributes to rallying the team (Kim et al., 2017).
- Participating in a mentoring program is a valuable perspective.
- Several steps need to completed when using the model.
- Task setting, mentors’ involvement, and educational sessions are the stages.
- A practice change implies improving professional competencies and organizational behavior.
- Task setting is a stage that consists in defining change goals.
- The necessary objectives are determined and disseminated.
- Mentors’ involvement implies organizing a specialist team.
- Relevant EBP knowledge is the main resource to utilize (Kim et al., 2017).
- Educational sessions are the final component of the program.
- Advanced nurses are the target audience of the change program.
- Utilizing the model is a convenient method of achieving numerous objectives.
- Organizational outcomes are improved through the complex initiatives.
- Communicating the necessary changes to target participants is critical.
- The organizational environment directly influences patient outcomes (Kim et al., 2017).
- Target nurses can enhance their professional qualifications.
- Achieving personal self-development is among the most important objectives.
- Kotter and Cohen’s model is a common change framework.
- The methodology provides an advanced intervention algorithm.
- Eight change stages are the background of the model (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2015).
- Addressing different change aspects is a strength.
- Interaction with the staff is a crucial condition (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2015).
- Multi-stage allows for engaging numerous stakeholders.
- The environment for implementing transformations is critical.
- The “climate for change” should be conducive (Mahmood, 2018, p. 175).
- Employees should be motivated to participate in change projects.
- Short-term wins are essential for achieving success (Mahmood, 2018).
- Relevant performance metrics help control the effectiveness of changes.
- The team should work jointly to accomplish the goals set.
Implementing a Practice Change: Kotter and Cohen’s Model
- The stages of the model are the change background.
- Creating urgency implies communicating the need for changes.
- Forming a coalition is associated with defining the main stakeholders.
- All the participants should have a clear working vision (Baloh et al., 2017).
- Communicating the vision needs to be person-oriented.
- All the members of a practice change project should realize their roles.
- Removing obstacles should be achieved through both organizational and personnel changes.
- Short-term wins may be identified due to proper planning (Baloh et al., 2017).
- Guiding change efforts should go hand in hand with short-term wins.
- Changes can be institutionalized through formal administrative decisions.
- The model is useful for different care settings (Baloh et al., 2017).
- All the changes are accompanied by utilizing evidence-based practice.
Baloh, J., Zhu, X., & Ward, M. M. (2017). Implementing team huddles in small rural hospitals: How does the Kotter model of change apply? Journal of Nursing Management, 26(5), 571-578.
Kim, S. C., Ecoff, L., Brown, C. E., Gallo, A. M., Stichler, J. F., & Davidson, J. E. (2017). Benefits of a regional evidence‐based practice fellowship program: A test of the ARCC model. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 14(2), 90-98.
Mahmood, T. (2018). What models of change can be used to implement change in postgraduate medical education? Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 9, 175-178.
Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (Eds.). (2015). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice (3rd ed.). Wolters Kluwer.
Melnyk, B. M., Gallagher‐Ford, L., Zellefrow, C., Tucker, S., Thomas, B., Sinnott, L. T., & Tan, A. (2017). The first US study on nurses’ evidence‐based practice competencies indicates major deficits that threaten healthcare quality, safety, and patient outcomes. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 15(1), 16-25.