Intravenous Medication in Medical Nursing Field

Introduction

The process of injecting medicine into the patient’s vein directly is called Intravenous medication administration. This can be done using a syringe to push the medicine into the vein of the patient, or use of IV secondary line through which the medication is passed into the patient after a lapse of a certain amount of time, or by mixing the medication in the main IV solution and administering it to the patient continuously. Most IV medications are administered using a peripheral line or a lock called saline IV although in some cases the IV medications can be administered directly using a central line or through a port entrenched in the vascular (Weinstein, 2006).

Intravenous medication is used as the fastest means of administering medication to the patient. The drug is immediately available in the body and is the easiest way to control drug levels in the bloodstream. It is recommended if the drug to be administered can be easily digested by the enzymes, or if the drug is irritating when administered through intramuscular injection (Bastable, 2007).

This paper will provide a teaching plan for a clinical teaching session based on intravenous medication administration.

Aim

The ultimate aim of this teaching plan is to explain the importance of Intravenous medication in medical nursing field.The staff nurses working in accident and emergency department will earn skills on how to determine the right dosage, preparation, correct administration of intravenous medication among the patients.They will also learn the available methods, the precautions to be observed and the complications that may arise and how to handle them in order to minimize side effects. It will also familiarize them with terminologies used in intravenous medication, the expected result and lastly the after care to be provided to the patient

Teaching objective

The teaching objectives of this lesson plan include: teaching for staff nurses working in accident and emergency department their roles and responsibilities as medical practitioners in administration of intravenous medications. The other goal of this study is to make the staff nurses to be aware of the physiological mechanisms of medication which includes absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion of medication in the human body system and teach themon how to differentiate types of medication actions.

This course will help staff nurses to be aware of factors that influence the development of pharmacokinetics and to learn on factors that can cause medication complications. They will also learn methods of educating a client and his role as a prescriber in intravenous medical administration and to be able to know the factors they consider when choosing medical administration routes. This course will also help the staff nurses working in accident and emergency departments to learn on how to calculate the correct prescription on the medical dosage and know the six rights of medication administration.

Topics include

The following courses will be covered in this subject. They include analysis of human body system and functions and the significances of electrolytes and fluids in it. The course will also cover the intravenous IV solution concentrations, their preparation and how to select the vein. The nurses will also be shown the procedure of carrying out Venispuncture, patient complications that may arise from intravenous IV therapy and the techniques on peripheral access.The study will also include the central access techniques and central line care in intravenous IV therapy and the kinds used in some kinds of disease control. In addition to that, they will also be taught on healthcare rules and regulations available.

Teaching strategies

Training nurses on administering intravenous injections requires well defined and effective teaching strategies. The first teaching strategy is the use of lectures and carrying out of discussion groups. The discussion groups help the students to be able to keep on being interested with what the lecturer is teaching. During the lecture, there should be maximum eye contact between the lecturer and the nurses so that he can able to access their consciousness. The instructions should be simplified and the speed and volume of teaching be varied and regulated accordingly. There should be references to personal experiences and a question answer session to see if they have understood (Roberta 2001). Secondly, there should be a thorough practical session because administration of intravenous injections requires practical skills. It is therefore very important for the lecturer to ensure that they have allocated enough time for the practical skills to be taught. The nurses should practice their skills in the emergency department carefully and be allowed to debate on any issues that may arise. Irrespective of the teaching method, there are three approaches that should always be used. These approaches will help both the nurses and lecturer to adapt to an environment where they will learn effectively. In the first approach, the learning atmosphere should be set with a good seating plan and well lit for effective teaching. There should also be audio visual approach which involves the use of sound elements which can be both recorded and edited. Audio visual model is behavioral in nature hence its use in representing traditional instruction designs (Bastable, 2007).

Dialogue should be used in a very logical manner that is very straightforward and comprehensible to the students. There should be a maximum use of closure which allows the teacher and the student to ask each other questions to gauge the level of understanding. These approaches are aimed at giving the teacher a brief way of terminating the teaching session. The educator should apply to the best the principles that are basic in both teaching and learning. There are three key learning spheres which are; affective, cognitive and psychomotor (Roberta 2001). After these sessions, nurses should be able to asses a patient, the kind of drug required, the dosage and the place of injection. They should also be able to take care of the patients who require continuous intravenous injections while taking into account the dangers, risks and patient safety.

Learner outcomes

At the end of this teaching session, the nurses should be able to demonstrate accurate dosage calculations, use appropriate equipments and identify proper and accurate documentation for the intravenous medication administration. They should demonstrate understanding of the principles of medication administration safety, basic nursing procedures in administration of intravenous medication, implementation of plan of care and individual responsibility for quality of nursing care.

They should be able to promote a safe and effective environment which is conducive to the patient, use of problem solving approach in order to make educated decisions regarding the care of the patient under intravenous treatment and demonstrate behaviors that promote the development and practice of intravenous medication. In addition to that, they should be able to acknowledge medical precautions and contradictions and at the same time administer intravenous injections safely.

Evaluation strategies

The nurses are recommended to undertake written examination which is standardized. The teacher should use Rubric-an assessment tool that is designed to simulate real life activity especially in the field of medicine due to its enormous advantages allowing assessment to be more objective and consistent and its provision of feed back to nurses (Romano, 2007). Their practical skills should be evaluated and what they have accomplished in their learning taken down. This can be done under a professional doctor or instructor or the teacher himself. The evaluation of practical skills can be carried out through giving the nurses a written and practical test. These written and practical tests will help the teacher to evaluate the accident and emergency department’s nurses what they have learnt in key areas like measurement of the right drug dosage and the use of the right equipment, knowing where to inject and making of the most appropriate decision as pertaining to the care of patients under Intravenous injections.

Conclusion

This teaching plan helped the staff nurses working in the accident and emergency department to understand intravenous medication, how to apply it and the precautions that should be taken in case of an emergency of injecting at the wrong place. The nursing staff also learnt other methods available for successful administration, their detailed description and preparation. As a matter of fact, they also got first hand information on the complications that may arise and how to handle them effectively and results analysis (Gahart & Nazareno 2008). It in turn prepares them with medical legalities and their role in the society at large as it pertains to their medical professions.

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