Medical Technology in the Operating Room

General Problem

Trying new equipment in the operating room and its effectiveness will depend on the amount of training offered by the manufacturing company and “the spectrum of abilities” acquired by the staff (Gallagher, O’Sullivan & Traynor, 2014, p. 296).

Specific Problem

Doctors and all operating room team members are often trying new equipment on surgical procedures and their experience may be frustrating if “minimal institutional investment” is implemented (Pantaleoni, Stevens, Mailes, Goad & Longhurst, 2015, p. 80). According to Cook and Woods, as people learn differently, watching live surgery may be easy and effective for some while watching the video of prerecorded surgery may be preferred by others as people differently “participate in the process of integrating the technology into a complex fields of practice” (2009, p. 594).

Although numerous researchers have examined operating room training, there are no studies that focus on equipment training in the Operating Room and “the value of delivering a theater induction curriculum” (Patel, Aggarwal, Osinibi & Darzi, 2012, p. 266).


The purpose of the randomized controlled experiment is to examine the impact of the mode of “educational interventions” on equipment competency (Gordon, Darbyshire, & Baker, 2012, p. 1042).


The variables to be explored are the competencies of the OR equipment users and their ability to improve efficiency “while costs remain stable” (which is the dependent variable) and the training modality will be the independent variable (Friedman, Sokal, Chang & Berger, 2006, p. 10).

Problem Solving

The importance of “proficiency-based” training and applying training regardless of time and money needs to be studied (Stefanidis, Scerbo, Montero & Smith, 2012, p. 30). Knowing the best training and “mentorship” method may help leaders in the Operating Room identify the best training modes to offer when training Operating Room team members on new equipment (Entezami, Franzblau & Chung, 2012, p. 30).

Extended Theory Practice

The theory of adult education suggests that adults learn in different and even “unique” ways (Usher & Bryant, 2014, p. 3). Although customized learning tools may not be necessary, steering towards the most effective training mode and a focus on “specific failure points” will be more helpful when training surgeons and nurses in operating room equipment (ElBardissi & Sundt, 2012, p. 21). Adult education professionals should develop and debate models of adult learning separately from models of the goals and purposes of their respective fields that use adult learning “within their enabling paradigm” (Usher & Bryant, 2014, p. 4).

To facilitate learning in the Operating Room, practical learning must be evaluated with a specific focus on “patient care standards” outcomes (Phillips, 2013, p. 42).

Reasons for Leaders to Care and how Achieving the Purpose Will Help Inform Leaders

The research will presumably help leaders develop “a strong motivation” among the staff in terms of using new technology (Christensen, 2013, p. 251). A rapid improvement in the use of new equipment and “non-technical skills” as well as in the success of surgeries is expected to follow (Gordon, Darbyshire, & Baker, 2012, p. 1042).

Ensuring effective training in the Operating Room helps the operating room leaders work easier. Leaders in Operating Rooms will also acknowledge that “team training” in the Operating Room is highly important (Forse, Bramble & McQuillan, 2011, p. 771).

How the Research Questions Answers Will Help Achieve the Purpose

By answering the research questions, one will be capable of determining the ways to improve the skills of the healthcare staff (especially when it comes to “nontechnical and teamwork skills”) and integrate surgical technology into the operation room setting successfully (Hull, Arora, Vincent & Sevdalis, 2012, p. 214).

Methodological Approach for Addressing the Problem and Achieving the Purpose


The methodology will be a quantitative randomized controlled experiment aimed at analyzing the relationships between the key variables (the staff’s proficiency, “self conception” and the existing training sessions) (Kim, Kim & Cho, 2012, p. 1).


It is preferable that a randomized controlled trial with “sufficient detail for replication” should be used as the basis for the research; thus, the research questions will be answered based on the implications of an actual case, raising the credibility of the study results (Bowen et al., 2012, p. 4).

Data collection

The data will be collected with the help of observations and individual interviews. The combination of the two was chosen as the means to retain the objectivity of the findings (Patel, Aggarwal, Osinibi & Darzi, 2012).

Contribution to Knowledge

The study to be conducted may shed some light on the means of enhancing knowledge acquisition regarding the use of modern technology by surgeons and the operating room team as well as “hazards” that may appear (Matern & Koneczny, 2007, p. 1965).

Addressing Gap in Literature for Proposed Study

Why Filling the Gap Is Important

Seeing that a surgeon must be able to make decisions fast and use the technology necessary for the surgery with proficiency, it is essential to upgrade the “technical skills” of surgeons and healthcare specialists with the update of technology (Gallagher, O’Sullivan & Traynor, 2014, p. 296).

How the Proposed Study Will Address Specified Gap

The proposed study will shed some light on the means for enhancing proficiency in the use of the corresponding surgical equipment and the latest technology. Specific tools will be suggested for spurring the process of “information acquisition” (Phillips, 2013, p. 94).

How Study Will Contribute to Challenges

The results of the study will also trigger the questions, which will serve as the premises for conducting a follow-up study (Gallagher, O’Sullivan & Traynor, 2014).

How Will Study Extend Theory, Practice, Methodology, Research Results, Knowledge

The results of the study will presumably help incorporate the tools for “technical skills” acquisition into the adult learning theory (ElBardissi & Sundt, 2012, p. 21). The courses to be developed will fill the gaps in the practice and inform the methodology that will “facilitate learning and development” of the staff (Gallagher, O’Sullivan & Traynor, 2014, p. 296).

How the Study Will Contribute to Leaders in the Field

The research will help the leaders in healthcare promote lifelong learning and assist the operating room staff in using the tools belonging to the latest technology, including Information Technology in an effective manner (Usher & Bryant, 2014).

Review of Germinal Literature

According to Phillips, various surgery and medical processes can benefit from the introduction of operating room technology (2013).

Review of Historical Literature

The testing of various forms of technology that is related to operating rooms has been tested and investigated in the course of history. Patel, Aggarwal, Osinibi, and Darzi (2012) have argued that “medical practitioners have catalogued the surgery process in regard to its impacts on operating room technology” (p. 269).

Review of Current Literature

A range “of programs have been adopted for training surgeons’ skills” (Gallagher, O’Sullivan & Traynor, 2014, p. 267)

Groups Studied Literature

According to Forse, Bramble, and McQuillan (2011), technology is important in the process of making operating rooms to be part of the hospital environment when it comes to new equipment” (p. 771).

Summary of How Literature Review Determined Need for the Study

The literature review has shown that there is a consistent need for surgeons to improve their skills in operating room technology (Gallagher, O’Sullivan & Traynor, 2014).


Bowen, A., Hesketh, A., Patchick, E., Young, A., Davies, L., Vail, A.,… & Tyrrell, P. (2012). Clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and service users’ perceptions of early, well-resourced communication therapy following a stroke: a randomised controlled trial (the ACT NoW Study). The American Journal of Surgery, 23(2), 66-75.

Christensen, C. (2013). The innovator’s dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Harvard: Harvard Business Review Press.

Cook, R. I., & Woods, D. D. (2009). Special Section: Adapting to New Technology in the Operating Room. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 38(4), 593-613.

ElBardissi, A. W., & Sundt, T. M. (2012). Human factors and operating room safety. Surgical Clinics of North America, 92(1), 21-35.

Entezami, P., Franzblau, L. E., & Chung, K. C. (2012). Mentorship in surgical training: a systematic review. Hand, 7(1), 30-36.

Forse, R. A., Bramble, J. D., & McQuillan, R. (2011). Team training can improve operating room performance. Surgery, 150(4), 771-778.

Friedman, D. M., Sokal, S. M., Chang, Y., & Berger, D. L. (2006). Increasing operating room efficiency through parallel processing. Annals of surgery, 243(1), 10.

Gallagher, A. G., O’Sullivan, G. C., & Traynor, O. (2014). An objective evaluation of a multi-component, competitive, selection process for admitting surgeons into higher surgical training in a national setting. World journal of surgery, 38(2), 296-304.

Gordon, M., Darbyshire, D., & Baker, P. (2012). Non‐technical skills training to enhance patient safety: a systematic review. Medical education, 46(11), 1042-1054.

Hull, L., Arora, S., Vincent, C., & Sevdalis, N. (2012). The impact of nontechnical skills on technical performance in surgery: a systematic review. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 214(2), 214-230.

Kim, J. O., Kim, H. J., & Cho, G. Y. (2012). A study on the perception of medical technology, self efficacy and professional self-concept among operating nurses. The Korean Journal of Health Service Management, 6(1), 1-13.

Matern, U., & Koneczny, S. (2007). Safety, hazards and ergonomics in the operating room. Surgical endoscopy, 21(11), 1965-1969.

Pantaleoni, J. L., Stevens, L. A., Mailes, E. S., Goad, B. A., & Longhurst, C. A. (2015). Successful physician training program for large scale EMR Implementation. Appl Clin Inform, 6(1), 80-95.

Patel, V., Aggarwal, R., Osinibi, E., & Darzi, A. (2012). Operating room introduction for the novice. The American Journal of Surgery, 203(2), 266-275.

Phillips, N. (2013). Berry & Kohn’s operating room technique. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Stefanidis, D., Scerbo, M. W., Montero, P. N., & Smith, W. D. (2012). Simulator training to automaticity leads to improved skill transfer compared with traditional proficiency-based training: a randomized controlled trial. Annals of surgery, 255(1), 30-37.

Usher, R., & Bryant, I. (2014). Adult education as theory, practice and research: The captive triangle. New York: Routledge.