Nursing Training Project in Cross-Cultural Setting


Evidence-based research will definitely improve the management and leadership skills of nurse leaders because it allows the professionals to cognize various theories and methods for improving the working setting and handle human resources. However, theoretical frameworks are useless unless they are effectively applied in practice. In this project proposal, it is possible to develop a video presentation with real-to-life participants for the nurses to gain greater experience and awareness in the due responsibilities they should take to perform their work properly. Hence, the practicum will include direct interaction with patients, equal distributions of tasks between nurses and their managers, and track of information exchange between a patient and a nurse. There will also be a list of tasks that need to be accomplished.

Goal Statement

In the course of the video presentation, both nurse leaders and their subordinates will have a marvelous opportunity to recollect their knowledge and experience and conduct a patient observation in accordance with all rules and principles for other nurses to understand their pitfalls and fill in the competency gaps.

Main Discussion

Project Objectives

  1. To recognize knowledge management skills and adapt to a culturally diverse setting, it is imperative to present the collaborative model of communication. Accurate information exchange, transparency in sharing decisions, and providing solutions can provide a favorable platform for interaction between patients and nurses, as well as increase the level of health care services.
  2. To examine efficient problem-solving mechanisms that would outline an action plan for nurses in critical situations.
  3. To identify specific training programs that would improve the observation procedures. Nurses should be able to apply the obtained knowledge in practice.

Evidence-Based Review of the Literature

Proper leadership and management shape the essentials of effective work of an entire organization. The role of a nurse leader in handling the managerial process is pivotal because it contributes to creating a favorable working setting. In this respect, to advance leadership and management skills, specific emphasis should be placed on the analysis of effective knowledge management and human resources management.

In these studies by Azaare and Gross (2011), various leadership styles are presented to define which ones are the most effective. At this point, they provide a case of the hospital where leadership was confined to intimidating and ignoring employees. In such a way, managers practice their authority with regard to their subordinates. The case is necessary to consider because it provides the major pitfalls that leaders experience while managing their employees. Similarly, Curtis and O’Connell (2011) focus on transformational leadership, motivation, and empowerment as the guiding resources to improve the employed environment. They briefly describe the strategies that can increase the culture of retention. The nurse leaders, therefore, should actively participate in exploring nurses’ motivation and performance levels, reducing resistance to change, and enhancing the work process.

Effective leadership consists of creating effective strategies and models that would allow nurses to make important decisions and solve problems. They should also be able to face challenges and react quickly to critical situations. In this respect, Park (2012) recommends resorting to a six-step model of ethical decision-making, which an essential skill for nurses. Hence, the models are composed of problem identification, data collection to identify effective solutions, development of alternative paths for problem-solving, selection of the best approaches and rationale for the selected methods, analysis of various practical ways to apply to ethical actions, and finally, evaluation of effects and development of a mechanism to make prevent similar problems in future. With regard to the model, it is important for a nurse to be competent enough for integrating effective decisions in practice. In particular, Uys et al. (2004) argue that problem-solving skills should be specifically oriented with a patient-centered approach. A nurse should be able to provide appropriate solutions with regard to patient needs and concerns.

Because the main objective of the project is to act a patient observation process for other nurses to pay attention to the pitfall and problems in inpatient treatment, it is imperative to resort to the study by Royse and Newton (2007). At this point, the scholars propose to integrate gaming as a part of a training program for nurses. It is strongly suggested to rely on this framework because nurses “…prefer learning environments that promote active involvement and value gaming as a teaching strategy that demands their participation in solving problems” (Royse & Newton, 2007, p. 264). Therefore, acting a bedside video will activate nurses to present the best of their solutions.


The project will be divided into several stages and sub-stages so that everything is done in a consistent way. The stage is a preliminary preparation for the bedside shift. The participants will have to be introduced to the objectives and procedures of the practicum to understand their responsibilities and duties. The nurses will receive instructions for consideration and will be checked whether all the points are clear to them. The patients will also be informed about the purpose of the project. The managers should receive formal consent from patients who are going to participate in the practicum. They will be instructed concerning their roles. More importantly, the patient should be warned about the video recording and all ethical concerns will be met. The managers will also be encouraged to introduce their plans for patient observation. A week before the video recording of the practicum, the nurses and managers should take a training program on problem-solving and decision-making techniques so as to reveal them in the course of the project accomplishment. There will be about 3 lectures and 3 seminars so that nurses and managers will have time to prepare for the practicum.

For the project, four nurses and two managers will be invited to conduct model patient observations. They will have to design their own procedures. They will not be informed about the patient’s diseases and disorders and, therefore, they will have to rely only on their experience and knowledge to identify the problem and follow the presented model of problem-solving integrated by Park (2012). Reliance on the elements of gaming will also be a motivational factor because the participants will be split into two groups of three people each. Finally, each team should schedule its time and divide what each participant should do at a specific extract of time.

Because the practicum will be recorded on video, there should a video operator who should also be instructed concerning the goals and objectives of the project to make sure that everything will be done in accordance with them. Each shift manager should monitor the information flow and take care of patient welfare.


Their choice of two teams with one shift manager and two nurses will enable the participant to compete with each and strive to present the best solutions to the identified problem. There will be one patient with certain symptoms and disorders so that it is vital for each shift to diagnose the patient in the most effective way. The chosen subordination is chosen for shift managers to reveal their leadership and management skills and evaluate the efficiency of the roles they play in directing the team. Aside from human resources, it is important for the shift manager that all necessary equipment and tools are available for the personnel.

Formative Assessment

The formative assessment seeks to identify the level of nurses’ ability to deal with critical situation and operate knowledge they receive during observation. In addition, the shift managers will be evaluated in terms of their ability to give orders and control the overall procedure of the project. In general, both nurses and managers will be assessed in accordance to their competence while handling the equipment and assigning medicine to a patient. Specific attention will also be given to information and knowledge management within one department. The received outcomes will further be used to design further practicum and experiments to advance nurses’ competence and decision-making skills.

Summative Evaluation

The participants of the practicum will take two test before the procedures and after to highlight the improvement and identify that need to be fulfilled in a continuation plan. Each member of the practicum will go through a different test with regard to the roles and responsibilities they will take during the project accomplishment. Hence, the shift managers will be checked for understanding the essentials of leadership and management, as well as strategies efficiency in handling critical situations. They will also be evaluated for their ability to make decisions and allocate resources among their subordinates. Nurses will be checked for problem-solving skills and sharing decision-making. In such a manner, it will be possible to identify the way they adjust to various environments. Finally, all the members will be checked for the analysis of their communication skills. The test will identify the level of communication skills before and after the practicum. Importantly, the preliminary training programs will also be followed by an assessment to make sure that the team is ready for the project.


Azaare, J., & Gross, J. (2011). The nature of leadership style in nursing management. British Journal Of Nursing (BJN), 20(11), 672-680.

Curtis, E., & O’Connell, R. (2011). Essential leadership skills for motivating and developing staff. Nursing Management – UK, 18(5), 32-35.

Park, E. (2012). An integrated ethical decision-making model for nurses. Nursing Ethics, 19(1), 139-159.

Royse, M. A., & Newton, S. E. (2007). How GAMING Is Used as an Innovative Strategy FOR Nursing Education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28(5), 263-267.

Uys, L., Van Rhyn, L., Gwele, N., McInerney, P., & Tanga, T. (2004). Problem-solving competency of nursing graduates. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 48(5), 500-509.

Appendix 1: Timeline

Stages Procedures
  1. Training programs and meetings; (1 week)
During the stage, nurses and managers will be informed about the main objective of the practicum, as well as will be lectured on the essentials of leadership and management, knowledge management, and change management.
  1. Assessment (1 hour test)
On training program completion, the nurses and managers will undergo summative assessment to define the level of their proficiency.
  1. Tools and resources preparation (1 day)
During this stage, the participants will be divided into two groups. Their task will be to check whether all necessary tools and equipment is present for conducting the practicum.
  1. Assigning roles (1 day);
Both the assigned groups and the patient should be informed about the objectives of the project. The team will have to receive the formal consent from the patient to participate in the procedures.
  1. Video recording (2 days for each team);
The video operator should also be instructed concerning the procedure to make sure that the video is presented in a necessary way.
  1. Video analysis (2 days);
The assessment team will process the data received from videos to define the pitfalls and design a new testing procedure.
  1. Assessment (1 hour test);
The participants will undergo the test to highlight the improvement and detect the gaps.