Pap Smear Screening: Benefits and Barriers

Subject: Healthcare Research
Pages: 2
Words: 593
Reading time:
3 min
Study level: Bachelor


The null hypothesis for the study completed by Tung (2010) was as follows:

Pap smear use in Vietnamese American women contains more potential disadvantages rather than opportunities, and a reduced number of study participants are going to resort to Pap smear because of being afraid of testing results and irrespective of the stage of change.

The experimental hypothesis for the study completed by Tung (2010) was as follows:

Pap smear use in Vietnamese American women is an advantageous practice that creates new opportunities for cervical cancer screening processes and appeals to numerous Vietnamese American women irrespective of them being afraid of testing results but in line with the respective stage of change.

The key problem with the current study and its utilization of hypotheses is that Tung (2010) stated neither the null nor the experimental hypothesis anywhere across the study, forcing the author of the article analysis to interpret their ideas based on the information from the article itself.

Study Design

Tung’s (2010) article features a research project with a cross-sectional design with elements of descriptive statistics. In order to collect all the required information, the author administered a self-reported questionnaire that contained three essential sections: (1) demographic information, (2) cancer screening stage information, and (3) the scale of benefits and barriers to the utilization of Pap smear (Tung, 2010).

In the demographic questionnaire, nominal variables of marital status, and Pap smear experience (all independent) in the US were included. There were also two ordinal variables related to the participants’ education level and age. The information about where exactly the Pap smear screening was conducted was also included in the survey, with no interval or scale variables.

The cancer screening stage questionnaire took on the following variables: regularity of Pap smears (nominal, independent) and future plans regarding the use of Pap smears (nominal, independent). The ordinal scale was assigned to the variable of respondents’ classification, with six essential stages available to study participants: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and relapse (all independent). No interval or ratio variables were identified for the second questionnaire either.

For the third questionnaire, Tung (2010) included an interval scale variable to assess the benefits and barriers of Pap smears (dependent) according to Vietnamese American women. The researcher included a four-point Likert scale to keep the respondents’ scores.

Statistical Tests Used

The demographic variables in Tung’s (2010) research were addressed with the help of descriptive statistics. In order to assess the differences in perceived benefits and barriers of the Pap smear screening method, the researcher utilized one-way ANOVA and compared their attitude toward Pap smear screening across all six groups identified with the help of the cancer screening stage questionnaire. ANOVA was used because there were more than two samples. For statistically significant ANOVA results, Tung (2010) also conducted Tukey’s HSD posthoc tests in order to determine pairs of unalike stages of change in Vietnamese American women.

Study Conclusions

Tung (2010) concluded that the level of participation in Pap smear screening has to be increased due to statistically significant low scores obtained by study respondents located in the pre-contemplation stage. The null hypothesis was refuted by the researcher, and its experimental counterpart was successfully validated. Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test results showed no statistically significant results except for the pair of contemplation and maintenance stages. While the results presented within the framework of the current study are accurate and logical, it could be required to reiterate similar research projects with larger samples to assess the potential generalizability of the data and its value for the current area of investigation.


Tung, W. C. (2010). Benefits and barriers of pap smear screening: Differences in perceptions of Vietnamese American women by stage. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 27(1), 12-22.