Reproductive Toxicity of Bisphenol-A

Subject: Pharmacology
Pages: 3
Words: 945
Reading time:
4 min

Background information

Bisphenol-A is commonly used in dentistry, fissure sea lands, hospital instruments and tools, thermal papers, containers of beverages, and cans of food. The chemical has been found to harm the reproductive system of the human body (Rochester, 2019). Ways to contact BPA include inhaling, ingestion, and skin interaction during manipulation of the chemical. A large amount of it has been found in the urine of more than 90% of the urine samples tested in the population of the United States, according to the research conducted by The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Peretz et al., 2020 pg. 775). Disruption of the endocrine has been noticed after the interaction of the chemical with some of the biological receptors such as NR3C4receptors, NR3B3 receptors, and alpha and beta estrogen receptors. This has caused interference with the body’s normal function by its alteration of the receptors’ functions.

Research shows that exposure to the chemical seriously affects how oocytes mature, sperm quality, kills testicular cells and alters the ovary. Proves against BPA toxicity were revealed after thorough reviews were carried out (Peretz et al., 2020). In 2006 a team was created to investigate the effect of BPA inside and outside of a living body, where diverging results were observed. The experiment proved that there were adverse effects on the reproductive system of both males and females, where the impacts are analyzed below.

Mechanism of Action and Concentration in Females

BPA is a foreign estrogen closely related to estrogen structures, thus efficiently binding to its site and producing hazardous outcomes. Studies have shown that BPA badly affects fertility, postpones the beginning of female puberty, and disturbs the estrus cycle (Rochester, 2019). It is observed that BPA can bind to both ERα and ERβ. BPA imitates the action of estrogen and antagonist estrogen, signifying that it is a discerning estrogen receptor modulator or fractional agonist of the Estrogen receptor. This chemical also obstructs the biosynthesis of steroid hormones from cholesterol by reducing P450 CYPs cytochromes and StAR and blocks the production of E2 (Rochester, 2019). These mutations simultaneously proliferate follicular atresia and diseases that prime infertility, endometriosis, and polycystic ovary syndrome. BPA hinders the histone modification at the ovary level, which leads to the descendant modification of lhcgr mRNA levels, and global methylation inhibits the dnmt expression.

Mechanism of Action and Concentration in Males

It is not arguable that the toxicity of BPA upsets spermatogenesis. A high concentration of BPA binds to and performs as an antagonist of the androgen receptor. Moreover, to receptor binding, BPA has been found to disturb Leydig cell steroidogenesis. This compound affects 17hydroxylase/17, 20 lyases, and aromatase expression that interferes with LH receptor-ligand binding (Lassen et al., 2019). Urine samples of 98% of couples under infertility treatment show harmful levels associated with sperm count and motility (Lassen et al., 2019, pg 480). Ex vivo BPA has also been associated with a lessening of sperm reserves, a shortening of the transit time of sperm, and poorer mitochondrial activity.


Once BPA is consumed, an anabolic process is performed by enzymes. First, in the liver, the bulk of bisphenol-A binds speedily to glucuronic acid and produces bisphenol Aglucuronide. As bisphenol-A is a water-soluble compound, it is readily excreted in the urine and reduces interaction with the body’s biological processes. In vitro rats are exposed to BPA by adding a certain amount of the compound to their diet, having probiotics. Their concentrations of blood fell vividly and were eliminated two times sooner than the non-supplemented control group (Preethi et al., 2020). This experiment concludes that probiotics minimized intestinal absorption by improving BPA excretion and suppressing BPA opposing effects on lives. A convenient and cheaper way is developed to enhance the probiotic content of the gut by taking IVL Flora Life. Taking only two capsules a day can infuse the digestive system with 20 billion good bacteria. These probiotic capsules go to the intestine and release living probiotics to the gut, which balances gut bacteria and helps the body get rid of toxic chemicals more effectively, and has many more health benefits.

Limit Exposure and Prevention

Before getting fissure sealants, patients should check the product’s ingredients and discuss it with the dentist, as some formulations may seep bisphenol-A. Additionally, using plastic containers and metal cans, one should instead use glass containers, stainless steel utensils, paper glass or paper boxes, cloths, and ceramic containers to store food and beverages. This is because metal cans are lined with a sealant having BPA. The term microwave safe has nothing to do with your health safety.

It only means that the product won’t have International Letters of Natural Sciences deform. People should avoid interaction between plastics and foods that contains fats and acid. Moreover, the recycling of any damaged or broken plastic should be prohibited. Another prevention method is to use ceramic containers and stainless-steel vessels, as people should also use BPA-free food processors. The use of ceramic or metal coffee filters rather than plastic ones should be promoted as well.

Research Finding by U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP)

The research was carried out in 2008 about the effect of BPA, where the findings were discussed as explained: Consumer exposure to BPA is a significant concern due to the adverse health issues, which are far below the safe limit provided by agencies of government (Preethi et al., 2020). Despite its effect, the chemical is rapidly eliminated by the metabolic functions of the body. The laboratory results indicated that exposure to small doses of the chemical had no effect on the body. The use of BPA needs to be reduced to minimize the impact on human health, fertility, reproductive system, and development.


Lassen T. H., Frederiksen, H., Jensen, T. K., Petersen, J. H., Joensen, U. N., Main, K. M.,… & Andersson, A. M. (2019). Urinary bisphenol A levels in young men: association with reproductive hormones and semen quality. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(5), 478-484.

Peretz, J., Vrooman, L., Ricke, W. A., Hunt, P. A., Ehrlich, S., Hauser, R. & Flaws, J. A. (2020). Bisphenol A and reproductive health: Update of experimental and human evidence, 2007–2013. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(8), 775-786.

Preethi, S., Sandhya, K., Lebonah, D. E., Prasad, C. V., Sreedevi, B., Chandrasekhar, K., & Kumari, J. P. (2020). Toxicity of bisphenol on humans: A review. International Letters of Natural Sciences, 22, 32-46

Rochester, J. R. (2019). Bisphenol A and human health: A review of the literature. Reproductive toxicology, 42, 132-155.