Supervisor Nursing Orientation. Annotated Bibliography

Subject: Nursing
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Williams, L., & Irvine, F. (2009). How can the clinical supervisor role be facilitated in nursing: a phenomenological exploration. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(4), 474-483.

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The authors and researchers from John Moores University and Bangor University in England utilized data collected from clinical supervisors in one of the National Health Service trusts to come up with the findings in this study. The study employed phenomenological approach whereby a group of 12 nurses participated in an in-depth interview to determine their knowledge on the real meaning of working as a clinical supervisor and the role of the nurse especially from the perspective of the clinical supervisor. While much research, although on a small scale basis, had occurred on the actual roles of a clinical supervisor, a gap in research exists since few studies has tried to elaborate or explain what it really means to be a supervisor in a clinical perspective.

In comparison with studies conducted by Berggen et al. (2002), Berggren & Severinsson (2003) and lately by Begat et al. (2003), this study supplements their findings by offering a different perspective on clinical supervision by taking a phenomenological approach while involving the nurses as the primary source of the information. Findings from the study denoted three main categories of themes: conceptualization of the clinical supervision, development toward gaining the status of a clinical supervisor and lastly experiencing the role played by the clinical supervisor. In this case, the study demonstrated that the nursed involved in clinical supervision lacked assistance in terms of receiving the required supervision guidelines thereby creating structural gaps believed to be the main hindrance to efficiency in clinical supervision. The findings are an addition to the existing research on the clinical supervisor role and thereby serve to bring out the needs of the nurses in terms of managerial support when executing their responsibilities.

Arvidsson, B., & Fridlund, B. (2005). Factors influencing nurse supervisor competence: a critical incident analysis study. Journal of Nursing Management, 13(3), 231-237.

The researchers from the School of Social and Health Sciences in the Halmstad University utilized data collected using critical incident technique to help in the identification of the many factors that are overly related to critical incidents and which have influence on the overall competence of nurses in supervision. Owing to the existing gap in studies depicting the role of critical incidents, the findings will prove invaluable to nurse supervisors. While using self reports as the tool for collecting data from the 25 participants, the study denoted that a professional stance that described the awareness of operating in a secure environment that enhanced and facilitated reflection. More importantly, a personal stance whereby the supervisors behaviors while giving the participating nurses time especially when undertaking their normal duties was evident in the nurse profession.

Despite lacking self assurance, the nurse supervisors reported sense of security while executing their own duties. The study findings are important to nurse supervisors since they provide vital advice with regard to the intense application of the nursing theory together with focusing on nursing process while ensuring they understand their shortcomings and the available resources. The authors noted that the best way for a nurse supervisor to scrutinize and analyse his/ her action is by engaging a more experience colleague in the discussion and eventual examination. In comparison, Arvidsson (2002) asserts that the nursing practice has started embracing the wide range of cultural factors while increasingly acknowledging and recognizing the application of the tenets of nursing science in enhancing competence in the nursing professionals especially the nurses’ supervisors. The study adds knowledge to previous studies carried out on the factors that influence the competence of the nurse supervisors.

Sirola-Karvinen, P., & Hyrkäs, K. (2006). Clinical supervision for nurses in administrative and leadership positions: a systematic literature review of the studies focusing on administrative clinical supervision. Journal of Nursing Management, 14(8), 601-609.

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The researchers from the Finnair plc in Finland and university of southern Maine in USA utilized data collected from previous studies which were selected from the national and international medical databases. The systematically selected resources from peer reviewed articles, doctoral dissertations and well researched thesis helped in coming up with a coherent and sound systematic review on the description of the administrative clinical supervision particularly from perspectives given by the nursing leaders’, administrators’ and institutions directors. The administrators and the managers in the health care institutions particularly in the clinical area form the intended audience of this study. The content analysis provided a review that depicted wide variations in the demonstrated experiences particularly in the administrative clinical supervision and its overly supportiveness.

The administrative clinical supervision was also to offer versatility in terms of learning experiences coupled with support especially in work environments that proved challenging. More importantly, it impacts positively on the quality of patient care while effecting quality care through a means of development that is regarded by its overly resemblance to well renowned specialist community. In comparison, Paunonen-Ilmonen (2001) and Koivukoski & Niemelä (2001) emphasized administrative clinical supervision is instrumental in enhancing the quality management and the learning in the supervisees basing on the overall mission and vision of the organization thereby supporting efforts towards career development. Furthermore, the latter study depicted has the power to empower administrators and directors thereby increasing their confidence in managing their roles in leadership while tackling challenges related to change in the work environment.

Cohen, J. (2006). The Aging Nursing Workforce: How to Retain Experienced Nurses. Journal of Healthcare Management, 51(4), 233-245.

The researcher from Temple University in Pennsylvania utilized available literature from several organisations to come up with a concrete evaluation of the culture, compensation system and operations imperative in ensuring that the organizational efforts are aligned with these elements thereby helping in retention of nurses advancing to retirement age. The evaluation and analysis of the organizational structure is best suited for the top management in the health care organizations since they dictate the policy measures regarding the compensation and operations of their outfits. The management is then forced to enhance the contributors of satisfaction that will raise the morale of the workers so that they remain loyal to the organisation. Despite the fact that nurse managers carry the biggest responsibility, there lacks adequate support from the top management thereby making them unrecognized and unaccountable for the high turnover observed in nurses.

The most important is the use of other retention initiatives like altering the conditions at the work place. This will reduce the mental and physical stress while solving problems associated with the health and safety of the employees. From the study it was evident that it is important to look at the ageing workforce in terms of their salary structures and offer flexibility in working hours which will benefit compensation programs. In comparison, the Texas Center for Nursing Workforce Studies (2006) devised a plan to enhance the utilization of aging nurses by elevating them to clinical leaders, institution of flexibility in the working schedules and provision of financial incentives while allocating them less demanding positions. This study is thorough and offers different perspectives useful in addressing the issues concerning aging workforce.

Waskett, C. (2010). Clinical supervision using the 4S model3: how to support supervisors and sustain schemes. Nursing Time, 106(18), 14.

The researcher, a consultant in team working and supervision, utilizes the immense knowledge she holds in the field to offer concise advice on clinical supervision on the best way to support to supervisors while sustaining schemes in the National Health Service trusts, charities and its various social services units. The study is the final article in the series that aims to establish the clinical supervision by discussing support that is essential for supervisors particularly after undergoing training. The study denotes that its crucial for the formation of a framework that will enhance the creation of a bridge between practicing and the completion for training for the trainee supervisors. More importantly, the study depicts that the structure should be clear to the supervisors as well as the supervisees while ensuring all components of the system are clearly interwoven. Supervision should be achieved through enhancing the regular meeting of supervisors that facilitate the sharing of ideas while allowing the arrangement of agendas depending on the specific needs of the groups.

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Setting up of an online discussion forum that can help sharing ideas and dilemma through the solution focused model. It is imperative to utilize the information adduced through the confidential discussion by integrating them in enabling regular practice while ensuring that the supervisors are provided with supervision and linkage of supervision to other systems such as agenda for change is achieved. Evaluation should occur regularly to ensure sustainability while continuity by bolstering confidence in trainers who in turn pass the knowledge to other staff hence ensuring continuity. In comparison, Hawkins and Shohet noted that organized supervision is a key pillar in supporting supervisors in developing sustainable schemes. The study offers the most consistent information on support to supervision particularly to the clinical supervisors in the healthcare organisations.

Reference list

Arvidsson, B., & Fridlund, B. (2005). Factors influencing nurse supervisor competence: a critical incident analysis study. Journal of Nursing Management, 13(3), 231-237. Web.

Begat I., Berggren, I., Ellefsen, B. (2003). Australian nurse supervisors’ styles and their perceptions of ethical dilemmas within health care. Journal of Nursing Management 11 (1), 6–14.

Berggren I., Begat, I. & Severinsson, E. (2002). Australian clinical nurse supervisors’ ethical decision-making style. Nursing and Health Sciences 4 (1–2), 15–23.

Berggren I. & Severinsson E. (2003) Nurse supervisors’ actions in relation to their decision-making style and ethical approach to clinical supervision. Journal of Advanced Nursing 41 (6), 615–622.

Cohen, J. (2006). The Aging Nursing Workforce: How to Retain Experienced Nurses. Journal of Healthcare Management, 51(4), 233-245. Retrieved from Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition database.

Hawkins, P. & Shohet, R. (2003). Supervision in the Helping Professions. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

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Koivukoski S. & Niemelä P. (2001). Työnohjaus -tuntematon voimavara (Clinical Supervision – An Unknown Resource). Sairaanhoitaja (The Nurse) 9, 29–30.

Paunonen-Ilmonen, M. (2001) Työnohjaus: Toiminnan laadunhallinnan varmistaja (Clinical Supervision: The Means for Quality Assurance). WSOY, Helsinki (in Finnish).

Sirola-Karvinen, P., & Hyrkäs, K. (2006). Clinical supervision for nurses in administrative and leadership positions: a systematic literature review of the studies focusing on administrative clinical supervision. Journal of Nursing Management, 14(8), 601-609. Web.

Texas Center for Nursing Workforce Studies. (2006). Highlights: Strategies to Retain Older, Experienced Nurses in the Workforce. Washington, DC: Department of state health services.

Waskett, C. (2010). Clinical supervision using the 4S model3: how to support supervisors and sustain schemes. Nursing Time, 106(18), 14.

Williams, L., & Irvine, F. (2009). How can the clinical supervisor role be facilitated in nursing: a phenomenological exploration. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(4), 474-483. Web.