The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) demands all professional nurses to deliver healthcare to patients based on validated research, best practice, and current evidence. It is crucial that healthcare providers critically assess the reliability and credibility of available survey findings related to their practice to meet this requirement. This paper provides a comprehensive critique of the article titled “The Experiences of AIDS Orphans Living in a Township.”
The article’s title represents the study’s primary focus, which is to investigate and elucidate the lived encounters of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) orphans within a township. It succinctly reflects the content of the review, thereby stimulating the interest of the reader. The title is also appropriately worded; it contains eight words, which is neither too long nor too short.
The article’s abstract consists of a comprehensive summary of the study, the methodology adopted by the researchers, and the primary research outcomes and findings. It provides a concise overview of the research and includes information concerning the survey’s purpose, methods used to arrive at the outcome, sample selection, and sample size. Contrarily, the authors did not incorporate the specific recommendations and conclusions based on the presented study results.
Statement of the Problem
The researchers incorporated a comprehensive problem statement, which provides a broad overview of the concepts being studied and delineates the study’s background. The information included in this section is relevant, clear, and significant to the survey. It is congruent with the research purpose and contains a description of the setting and target populace. The problem statement also expresses the underlying link between variables.
The researchers provided a clear and concise research purpose, which reflects the study’s focus. Van-Rooyen et al. (2012) aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of the lived encounters of AIDS orphans residing in a township to comprehend their “life-world” as orphaned AIDS victims. The provided purpose statement addresses the target populace (AIDS orphans), setting (township), and variables (experiences lived by AIDS orphans).
The researchers did not include a literature review section in the article.
The researchers did not include details regarding the study’s theoretical or conceptual framework.
Research Objectives and Questions
The researchers provided a comprehensive listing of the study objectives and relevant research questions. They are clearly stated, appropriately worded, and congruent with the data included in the problem statement as recommended by Gray et al. (2017). The research question and pertinent goals help the reader to establish a connection between the survey’s purpose and how the study will be conducted.
The researchers did not provide a clear definition of the variables. Van-Rooyen et al. (2012) did not include a conceptual or theoretical framework for the survey; thus, one cannot establish whether the variables reflect the conceptualizations distinguished in the model. Contrarily, the researchers identified the demographic variables included in the study; however, they did not outline the extraneous variables.
The researchers adopted the phenomenological approach and used a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive, and contextual study design. The design is specific to the study; it is effective in assessing the research question. Furthermore, it is logically linked to the sampling method, and it helps address validity threats. Contrarily, the researchers did not provide a framework for the study. Van-Rooyen et al. (2012) provided a detailed description of the survey’s methodology. Furthermore, they obtained informed consent and ethical approval from all participants.
Sample and Setting
The three communities’ aggregate populace during the time of the survey was about 112,369 individuals. The researchers did not perform a power analysis for the sample size; therefore, it is impossible to ascertain whether the selected sample size was appropriate for the study. Type II errors are linked with the null hypothesis, which is commonly used in quantitative research. Given that this was qualitative research, there is no risk of type II error. Van-Rooyen et al. (2012) used the purposive sampling approach, a nonprobability sampling procedure. The selected sample was reflective of the populace – a sample attrition evaluation was not necessary for this study. Furthermore, they included the exclusion and inclusion criteria; however, the setting’s threats were not delineated.
The measurement selected by the researchers had a name and its appropriate author. Van-Rooyen et al. (2012) used Tesch’s method as delineated by Creswell. The chosen measurement approach was suitable for this particular survey.
The researchers provided a detailed description of the data collection process used in the study. The gathering of relevant information was done consistently and ethically using unstructured phenomenological in-depth interviews (Van-Rooyen et al., 2012). The researcher purposed to allow the respondents to utilize their words and create their thoughts. The collection of data continued until a data saturation level was achieved – after eight weeks. All interviews were done in the privacy of the residents of AIDS orphans. The open query was used to yield rich and spontaneous delineations of the phenomenon. The interview progressed by exploring and following up on dimensions introduced in the accounts given in response to the previous question; this allowed some flexibility to the data collection process.
Data Analysis and Findings
The selected measurement allowed the investigators to select a single document, comprehend the information, and create short notes. The researchers later listed topics and clustered the data per similarity; sub-themes and themes were then developed. The researchers did not give an account for the missing data and management of extraneous variables. The evaluation process’s rigor or trustworthiness was enhanced using the conformability, dependability, transferability, and credibility criteria (Van-Rooyen et al., 2012). The findings obtained by the researchers addressed the study’s purpose adequately. The researchers identified two major themes: children encountered devastating adjustments in their life situations upon becoming AIDS orphans, and AIDS orphans found hope to continue living. Their researchers did not perform any statistical analysis; however, the tables used in the article were appropriate. Data interpretation was congruent with the research information; the outcome variations between specific sample characteristics were addressed.
The researchers included a summary of the results, which answered the research question adequately. The outcomes highlighted AIDS orphans’ experiences as outlined in the themes and sub-themes developed by the researchers. Van-Rooyen et al. (2012) linked the study’s results to those obtained in other research pieces and pertinent literature. By addressing data transferability, the investigators enhanced the generalizability of the obtained outcomes. The study findings delineated AIDS orphans’ needs to help PHCNs develop appropriate support and care plans for this target populace. The researchers explored this conception and included the survey’s limitations. The conclusion provided by the investigators suits the data analysis’s findings.
The researchers addressed the implications for science, research, education, and nursing practice; they further made recommendations for future studies.
There are various strengths associated with this article; first, the researchers developed an appropriate title for the study. Second, they included a well-detailed abstract, problem statement, study purpose, objectives, and research question. Third, the selected research design, sampling method, and data analysis procedure were appropriate. Fourth, the researchers provided a comprehensive delineation of the study findings and discussion. The article’s significant shortcomings include the lack of a literature review and conceptual framework, which are crucial in establishing the relationship between variables and conceptualizations. The study outcomes uncovered AIDS orphans’ needs; this information can be used to facilitate the development of appropriate support and care plans for this target populace by PHCNs.
The article contains an appropriate study title and a well-detailed abstract, problem statement, study purpose, objectives, and research question. The study’s research design, sampling method, data collection method, and data analysis procedure are appropriate for the research. The study findings and discussion are well-described; however, the research lacks a literature review and conceptual framework. These findings can be used to facilitate the delivery of appropriate care to AIDS orphans by PHCNs.
Gray, J. R., Grove, S. K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.). Elsevier.
Van-Rooyen, D., Frood, S., & Ricks, E. (2012). The experiences of AIDS orphans living in a township. Health SA Gesondheid, 17(1), 1–11. Web.