The Human Influenza: The Risks

Subject: Pulmonology
Pages: 5
Words: 1635
Reading time:
6 min


Harvesting and concentration of human influenza is more focused on causes, treatments and other risks related to influenza in the society. This is because influenza is a very dangerous disease in the modern world. Many risks are taken towards finding the causes, treatments and effects of influenza in the modern world through research studies.

Risk Management Plan

Plans that have been taken towards managing influenza have been very risky because most of the plans have not proved to be effective due to the fact that the virus keeps on changing and new species keep cropping up (Jephrys, 2009). There have been many attempts towards coming up with vaccines that can help in destroying diseases that affect human beings in the modern society for a very long time. Scientists have tried introducing several vectors and also vaccines. However, not all of them have been successful and that is one of the reasons as to why more medical research is still being done in the modern society (Emile, 1972).

One of the diseases that are still being researched on is influenza which affects human beings. Influenza destroys more than 9 percent of the world’s population every year and thus it is a disease to be concerned with. This is because the mortality rate associated with influenza keeps increasing. Thus something has to be done to reduce the rate at which people die of influenza. Influenza is caused by a virus that is in the family of orthomyxoviridae and it is enveloped in the lipid of RNA.

Very many publications under the topic of influenza have been done in the last fifty years with the intention of reducing its infections but the disease still remains to be a great threat to the society (Richard, 2007). Vaccinations related to the virus are also being produced and up graded on a daily basis but a better solution towards reducing the number of infected victims have not yet been found. Some of the experiments that have been made are focused on the use of chicken egg in conjunction with the modern technology in developing an effective influenza vaccine (Peterson, 1966). One of the attempts that have been done in destroying the influenza virus has been through coming up with several vaccines related to the destruction of influenza. Medical researchers have also proposed the use of mammalian cells to develop equine influenza vaccines.

Influenza and its Risks

Influenza is also known as flue and it is an infectious disease that is caused by the RNA virus (Jephrys, 2009). This disease mainly affects birds and also mammals. Human beings being part of the mammals get easily infected by the disease or get contaminated by the virus that causes it from birds. Influenza is a contagious disease in the sense that if it affects birds especially the edible ones such as chicken, the meat becomes poisonous to human beings. Some of the symptoms of influenza include coughs, muscle pains and fever among other symptoms (Jephrys, 2009). The symptoms that are very frequent include coughing, sore throats and fever.

In very serious cases, the disease can lead to pneumonia and this can be very fatal especially for children and elderly victims in the society. In most cases influenza is confused for other diseases because its symptoms tend to be similar to those of other diseases such as common cold (Jephrys, 2009). The differences can only be realized when people get to know that influenza is caused by a much different virus and that it is more severe than a common cold.

When children are affected or infected by influenza, they can either start vomiting or experiencing nausea. This is more common when the victim is suffering from gastroenteritis which is also known as the stomach flu at times or the flu that takes 24 hours (Jephrys, 2009). There are very many ways in which influenza can be transmitted between a bird and a mammal which include direct contact or through sneezes and air coughs.

It is believed that influenza can also be transmitted through aerosol but what has not yet been concluded is the means of transmission. One of the best ways of reducing the infections of influenza is thorough washing hands and other body parts because the virus can be inactivated by detergents and sunlight among other disinfectants (Perko, 1999). Washing of hands frequently reduces the chances of people becoming infected by influenza in the society hence reducing its risk. Influenza is experienced around the globe in seasonal epidemics and the number of deaths goes up to half a million on average. Under serious cases the number of deaths can even reach a million in a given epidemic season (Perko, 1999).

In the United States the number of people who die as a result of influenza was being counted after a very long time. Today it is preferred to have the death cases counted per year while focusing on how to reduce the number of infected victims in the world.

Influenza becomes more dangerous when a new species of the virus causing it comes to life especially in animals and birds (Perko, 1999). This requires a more powerful vaccine to be introduced with immediate effect because if not done so, many people are bound to die all over the world. In the 20th century, there was three of the worst epidemic seasons that affected a great number of people in the world and millions of people died due to influenza. H5N1 is one of the most dangerous influenza viruses that emerged in 1990 in Asia. It reappeared in the year 2009 and this time it was not very dangerous because the mortality rate was not very high all over the world.

In most of the developed countries, the mortality rate is usually very low because people as well as poultry birds are given vaccinations against the disease (Jephrys, 2009). The vaccination that is given is known as trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and this has been one of the ways of reducing the mortality rate and other risks related to the disease (Aaron, 2009). TIV is more reliable because it does not have any reactivity. Antiviral drugs can also be used against the disease (Jephrys, 2009).

Types of Influenza Virus

There are very many types of influenza viruses and they are all found in the family of the orthomyxovirus. All of them are related to human influenza viruses in one way or another and that is one of the reasons as to why each one of them can affect human beings (Jephrys, 2009). There are three genuses of the viruses namely, A, B and C. They are named according to how they affect human beings (Jephrys, 2009). Influenza virus A is believed to be having a great number of influenza hosts and is mainly found in birds. Thus it is usually transmitted from birds to other mammals (Richard, 2007). Influenza virus B mainly affects human beings directly but it is not as common as influenza A. Influenza virus C mainly affects pigs, human beings and dogs and in most cases it causes it causes mild infections to children (Gary, 2007).

Influenza Treatment

The most common was of treating influenza is through getting a lot of rest, drinking a lot of liquids and avoiding the use of tobacco and alcohol (Richard, 2007). Another alternative is through taking necessary medication like acetaminophen so as to relieve fever and muscles pains (Perko, 1999). Taking of aspirin is not advisable because it can lead to more severe liver diseases when one has been infected by influenza (Richard, 2007). Finally, it is advisable to seek appropriate and effective medication in order to prevent the disease from recurring (Richard, 2007).


Risk number Risk Category Occurrence consequences Rating
Inadequate treatment amenities management Often Slows pace of treatment of influenza 40%
Inadequate Skilled personnel Management Frequently Poor performance 35%
Poor Infrastructure Resource Frequently Poor services 25%
Insufficient Capital Finance Often Failure of the management plan 50%

Risk treatment

Risk Treatment strategy
Influenza Virus Trivalent Influenza Vaccination (TIV)
Muscle aches Taking Acetaminophen

Risks of Influenza Vaccines

As a consultancy firm our main objective is to ensure that any Pharma company that seeks our advice is able to implement all the procedures are mentioned in their production process. There are very many risks that a Pharma company can face and these include inadequate treatment amenities, insufficient funds to implement the plans, inadequate skilled personnel and poor infrastructure (Perko, 1999). Having inadequate treatment amenities means that a Pharma company may not be able to implement some of the plans mentioned. This might result to increased number of victims suffering from Influenza (Perko, 1999).

Another risk that a Pharma company might face is the lack of skilled personnel. This means that people working in such organizations have not received sufficient training thus they cannot effectively perform task that are related to fighting influenza (Perko, 1999). Poor infrastructure is also a risk factor that will interfere with a Pharma company’s efforts in fighting influenza. Poor infrastructure in this case relates to lack of adequate social amenities like hospitals and schools that are important in the treatment and prevention of influenza. Having insufficient funds to implement the mitigation plans is another risk that a Pharma might face when producing influenza vaccines.

The process of producing influenza vaccines requires a lot of funds. This means that the financial aspects of the project should be well defined so as to have adequate supply of vaccines that will be able to reach a great number of people in the society hence reducing influenza infections. After all these risks have been contemplated, it will be easier to focus on influenza vaccination that will be used to reduce the infections in the society (Perko, 1999).


Emile, A. (1972). Influenza virus: studies of the structure and biosynthesis. Melbourne: University of Melbourne.

Jephrys, A. (2009). Advances in virus research: influenza virus. London: Publisher Academy.

Perko, S. (1999). The homeophaThe homepathic treatment of influenza: surviving influenza and pandemics past, present and future. New York: Homepathic Publications.

Peterson, J. (1966). Avian influenza infections: studies of influenza. Madison: University of Winsconsin.

Richard, G. (2007). Project management: 24 steps to help you master any project. New York: MacGraw-Hill Professional.