Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remains one of the most prevalent and serious chronic health conditions in the US, currently affecting more than 37 million Americans (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021). However, out of the affected population, minority groups have a disproportionally higher risk of developing the disease. To eradicate this issue, it is necessary to define its causes and address the issue on the public level. Using article databases such as PubMed, Elsevier, and Google Scholar, relevant inquiries on the topic of T2DM in minorities were found and analyzed. The results demonstrate that ethnic and sexual minorities are at a significantly higher risk of developing T2DM due to both emotional and biological reasons. In ethnic minorities such as the Latino population, heavier psycho-emotional burden and different patterns of insulin sensitivity contribute to the disproportional predisposition to the disease. In sexual and cultural minorities, the stigma-related stress contributes to a higher risk of obesity, substance abuse, and depression, eventually leading to prediabetic health conditions. All minority groups have poor access to disease management because of their socio-economic background. Hence, T2DM takes a heavier toll on the minority groups and, thus, requires more attention from the public sector. In order to resolve this issue, it is necessary to reorganize the patterns of minority groups’ education and awareness of T2DM predisposition. Moreover, it is of paramount importance to promote cultural sensitivity among clinical professionals in order to reduce the incidence of T2DM in minorities.
In the public health paradigm of chronic illnesses and conditions, diabetes is one of the most complex and frequently mentioned challenges for the population’s health. Indeed, currently, more than 35 million people in the US are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the incidence rates tend to escalate annually (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020). The issue of T2DM prevalence is challenging specifically to the minority populations due to their socio-economic and biological risk factors. Hence, an unprecedentedly high rate of T2DM incidence among social and ethnic minorities requires a public health solution on awareness and prevention, and the goal of this paper is to review the existing evidence to outline a potential action plan for the public health advocates nationwide.
T2DM is one of the most hazardous chronic illnesses in the world. Currently, nearly 6% of the global population has T2DM (Khan, 2020). However, when it comes to the risk factors associated with disease, apart from age, T2DM risk factors are more common in minorities. Ethnic minorities, such as people with Hispanic heritage, tend to have higher insulin resistance rates, a genetic predisposition to the disease, and a higher predisposition to hyperglycemia. Moreover, as a result of constant stigmatization and emotional distress, minority groups are more mentally vulnerable and can develop disorders associated with T2DM. Meanwhile, the levels of public health education, as well as unstable access to treatment, serve as barriers to quality T2DM preventive programs among susceptible groups. Thus, in order to improve the patterns of T2DM management among minorities, it is vital to create a comprehensive educational and preventive program on the disease that would include risk factors, health promotion groups, and free public services to help people with pre-diabetes or T2DM.
Once the preventative measures are taken, both ethnic and social minorities will be at lower risk of developing T2DM, and medical costs for treating unmanaged diabetes will decrease significantly. Furthermore, a higher awareness level among medical professionals will lead to a better expression of cultural sensitivity and compassion. If ignored, T2DM prevalence in minorities will become a detrimental issue to society, increasing one’s genetic predisposition to the disease and affecting thousands of new patients annually. Such a negative tendency will inevitably lead to higher operational costs for the industry and the patients, leaving minorities with no affordable treatment and prevention options.
In the course of this paper, both analytical and socio-cultural aspects of T2DM in minorities will be reviewed and synthesized in order to outline a concrete action plan for the community. Using scholarly databases such as PubMed, Elsevier, Wiley Online Library, and Springer, peer-reviewed and recent publications will be found and analyzed, addressing the potential challenges of T2DM management in minorities and socio-economic barriers to efficient treatment. A review of a minimum of six credible sources will be conducted to determine the most prevalent themes on the topic and their implications for the minority groups. Based on the analyzed data, a conclusion will include a series of potential public interventions to facilitate T2DM management and prevention among minorities.
Mathematical and Analytical Inquiries
Nowadays, type 2 diabetes is a medical condition that affects millions of people worldwide and has severe repercussions on one’s health. In order to combat the issue of mass predisposition to diabetes, researchers invest much effort in finding current challenges in the early diagnosis and management of the disease. One of the widespread challenges is the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in diverse populations.
The first study is the research conducted by Goff (2019). The source is credible because it is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal article that has no external funding. Hence, this review focuses on the analysis of T2DM prevalence and diagnosis among ethnic minority communities in the UK (Goff, 2019). According to the investigation, “among ethnic minority groups, the prevalence is alarmingly high, about three to five times higher” than in the White population (Goff, 2019, p. 930). Essentially, the review implies that early diagnosis of T2DM in the minority population is challenged by a lack of cultural competence among practitioners, whereas the group’s predisposition to the disease is significantly higher. Although there is a need for quantitative research, the study provides valuable insights into the current issues of diabetes management in minorities. Hence, it would be beneficial to use it for the research on diabetes treatment in minority groups.
The second study conducted by Cruz and Granados (2018) is focused on the analysis of T2DM diagnosis and prevalence in Latino youth. This source is credible because it is a peer-reviewed journal article written by scholars with qualifications in nutrition and endocrinology. The study itself “provides an update on the clinical aspects of T2DM in Latino youth and focuses on management and prevention strategies” (Cruz & Granados, 2018, p. 16). According to the study, the overwhelming majority of youth with T2DM are overweight, and such statistic presents a problem for Latino youth because “obesity and diabetes risk disproportionally affect Latino populations” (Cruz & Granados, 2018, p. 16). The findings demonstrate that Latino youth has a higher predisposition to low insulin sensitivity, B-cell dysfunction, and pre-diabetes, which presents a challenge for finding a more culturally aware solution for T2DM management and prevention. This study is essential to the research topic because it explicitly provides evidence of the cultural gap in T2DM management in ethnic minorities.
The last study by Corliss et al. (2018) focuses on the issue of T2DM prevalence in lesbian and bisexual female communities. This material is credible because it is a peer-reviewed publication written by professors of public health and epidemiology, whereas the article does not claim any third-party funding or conflict of interest. The central objective of the study is to investigate the “incidence of type 2 diabetes in LB women and heterosexual women in a large, longitudinal U.S. cohort” (Corliss et al., 2018, p. 1448). The researchers imply that women from sexual minorities while having higher risks of obesity, stress-related exposures, and tobacco and alcohol abuse, may be more susceptible to T2DM. The findings claim that “LB women have a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes than heterosexual women,” particularly due to higher risks of obesity (Corliss et al., 2018, p. 1451). This study provides valuable insight into the research topic, as it presents evidence of the correlation between the risk of T2DM management and detection and being a part of a minority group.
Considering the articles above, it can be concluded that currently, many researchers focus on the issues of diagnosis and management of T2DM in minority groups. The results from all three articles demonstrate a positive correlation between a diverse background and a higher risk of developing T2DM. For this reason, it would be of paramount importance to dwell on how these issues could Ibe resolved through timely interventions and holistic care.
Ethical and Cultural Inquiries
The first study addresses the notion of Hispanic and Latino culture’s predisposition to T2DM in the US. Thus, according to Aguayo-Mazzucato et al. (2019), “the incidence and prevalence of T2D and gestational diabetes are higher in the Hispanic population across all age groups” (p. 7). The authors intended to systemically analyze the roots of such a socio-cultural disparity. The findings demonstrate both physical and socio-economic predeterminers of higher T2DM prevalence in the Hispanic population. The biological factors include higher obesity rates, insulin resistance, genetic predisposition to the disease, and glucose intolerance (Aguayo-Mazzucato et al., 2019). The source is credible because it is a scholarly article published in a peer-reviewed medical journal and has no conflict of interest and third-party funding. The study presents an exceptional value to the research topic because it explicitly demonstrates how one cultural group is most affected by the issue of T2DM.
The second research article dwells on both cultural and ethical issues faced by the Latino population with T2DM. Tyson et al. (2019) focused on the experiences of the Latino farmer community in rural areas of Florida. After conducting nearly 30 interviews, the researchers found that while aware of their health status and medical recommendations, respondents were unable to follow professional advice and resorted to less efficient alternative methods of T2DM management (Tyson et al., 2019). The barriers to proper management included “high cost of glucometer test strips and difficulty adhering to a diabetic diet…[and] limited income” (Tyson et al., 2019, p. 205). This scholarly article shall be considered credible because it was published in a peer-reviewed journal and written by professors of social studies and cultural minority studies. The research is useful due to the contribution of cultural and socio-ethical barriers to T2DM management in minorities.
The third article dwells on the ethical issue of racial and ethnic discrimination among Latino patients with T2DM. LeBrón et al. (2019) researched the interrelation between ethnic discrimination, depressive symptoms, diabetes-related distress, and HbA1c levels. Although no specific correlation was found directly between discrimination and HbA1c, diabetes-related distress served as a mediating factor (LeBrón et al., 2019). According to the findings, “racial/ethnic discrimination is detrimental to health for Latinos with diabetes” (LeBrón et al., 2019, p. 105). This article is credible because it is a peer-reviewed publication with no conflict of interest claim and no external funding. The research plays a critical role in showcasing evidence of ethical issues and their implications for T2DM risk and management in ethnic and racial minorities.
The evidence demonstrated above justifies the fact that T2DM management in minorities is more complex and challenging due to socio-economic and cultural peculiarities of disease treatment. It is evident in the example of the Latino population in the US that despite an unprecedently higher T2DM predisposition, access to treatment is extremely difficult. Hence, further research is needed to establish the patterns of combating such a negative tendency.
Research Questions Analysis
Mathematical and Analytical Perspectives
The phenomenon of diabetes prevalence in the US population has been a subject of discussion over the past several decades. In order to better understand the implications of the disease, it is necessary to dwell on both scientific and analytical aspects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present paper focuses on the research questions related to the topic of T2DM prevalence in ethnic and social minorities. Hence, the Level 1 research questions for both inquiries are as follows:
- What is the pathophysiology of T2DM?
- What are the statistical facts related to T2DM prevalence in the US?
The Level 2 research questions are:
- What are the pathophysiological implications of T2DM in minorities?
- What are the statistical implications of T2DM in minorities?
T2DM is generally known as a metabolic disorder that affects the global community disproportionally competed to other conditions. According to Galicia-Garcia et al. (2020), “its development is primarily caused by a combination of two main factors: defective insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells and the inability of insulin-sensitive tissues to respond to insulin” (p. 1). Insulin is a crucial hormone for the human body because it regulates the levels of sugar in the blood by releasing glucose to the body to produce energy. Having low insulin release in the body, people have high blood glucose levels and experience issues with the heart, vasculature, sight, kidneys, and central nervous system (Galicia-Garcia et al., 2020, p. 2). Thus, to combat the disease, the patients need to regulate their insulin and blood sugar levels with the help of medical interventions or changes to their lifestyle.
There are many risk factors that can potentially lead to the development of T2DM. These factors include genetic predisposition to the disease, obesity, poor dietary habits, tobacco or alcohol dependence, or stress-related mental disorders (Yuan & Larsson, 2020). All these factors lead to a higher risk of low insulin secretion and the development of hyperglycemia, or extreme blood sugar levels. As far as the physiology is concerned, the organs usually involved in the T2DM development are “the pancreas (β-cells and α-cells), liver, skeletal muscle, kidneys, brain, small intestine, adipose tissue… adipokine dysregulation, inflammation, and abnormalities in gut microbiota” (Galicia-Garcia et al., 2020, p. 2). The development of T2DM frequently leads to comorbid diseases and health complications such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depression, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (Nowalowska et al., 2019). Hence, T2DM is a serious health complication caused by various widespread factors and contributes to the development of other chronic conditions. For this reason, the management and early detection of this disease of crucial for effective health care nationwide.
T2DM is rightfully considered one of the most widespread metabolic conditions in the US. Currently, nearly 37.3 million people in the country have diabetes, whereas 90-95% of this number is constituted by T2DM (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020a). The statistics, however, cannot be exhaustive due to the fact that with every tenth person having diabetes, one in five people are unaware of this diagnosis, making the number of T2DM patients potentially higher (CDC, 2020a). The rapid T2DM growth among the population results in more than $300 billion worth of lost employment and medical costs related to T2DM management (CDC, 2020a). Hence, it is reasonable to assume that diabetes is a global health issue that has become a full-scale epidemic in the US.
As far as different population groups are concerned, the statistics demonstrate that T2DM is more prevalent in male older adults. Thus, nearly 26.8% of the US population older than 65 had diabetes in 2016 compared to 4.2% of diagnosed cases in the 18-44 age group (CDC, 2022). Similarly, the number of diagnosed diabetes cases is 2% higher in the male population, constituting 14% of the US men (CDC, 2022). The tendency, however, has a chance to change over time, as the CDC (2022) notes that cases of T2DM in children increase significantly. Thus, in 2014-2015, the number of newly diagnosed T2DM cases in children aged 19 and younger was more than 5,000 (CDC, 2022). Hence, considering the current statistics, it may be concluded that T2DM remains a major challenge to the US nation and requires more attention from the public health care institutions.
Pathophysiological Implications of T2DM in Minorities
Previously, some of the common risks for developing T2DM were discussed, with genetic factors, obesity, inactive lifestyle, and stress being some of the most significant aspects. Thus, in the context of minority populations in the US, the pathophysiology of the disease remains the same, whereas the predisposition risks grow substantially. For example, since ethnic groups such as the Latin population are more prone to develop obesity due to socio-economic factors and genetic predisposition, the risk of developing T2DM becomes higher compared to the White population. For example, in the study by Cruz and Granados (2018), the researchers claim that obesity disproportionally affects Latino youth in the US. Moreover, the study reveals that the physiological peculiarities of Latino youth imply higher liver fat accumulation and “low insulin sensitivity” (Cruz & Granados, 2018, p. 17). It puts them at a higher risk of hyperglycemia.
Another study by Goff (2019) suggests that the T2DM peculiarities are different for every ethnic background. For example, for the Asian population, the metabolism patterns are different from the White population. As a result, it is necessary to reconsider the threshold for the overweight BMI should be lower (Goff, 2019). Finally, the evidence also demonstrates that stress-related factors relate to the obesity predisposition in minorities. Corliss et al. (2018) suggest that the lesbian and bisexual population has a higher level of stress-related mental difficulties, leading to higher obesity levels and, eventually, T2DM risk. Hence, it may be concluded that socio-ethnic minority groups in the US, although developing the same anatomic patterns of T2DM, have a significantly higher risk of developing the disease through the underlying risks. Public health specialists need to develop a framework of cultural awareness and sensitivity to mitigate the problem’s scope.
Statistical Implications of T2DM in Minorities
When analyzing the national statistics on T2DM prevalence, it is evident that the majority of instances occur in minority groups. Thus, according to CDC (2022), out of all the T2DM diagnoses recorded in 2017-2018 among local adults, only 7.5% of cases fall into the “non-Hispanic White” category. Other instances belong to “American Indians/Alaska Natives (14.7%), people of Hispanic origin (12.5%), non-Hispanic Blacks (11.7%), and non-Hispanic Asians (9.2%) (CDC, 2022, p. 4). According to Goff (2019), “among minority ethnic communities, the prevalence is alarmingly high, approximately three to five times higher” than in White population (p. 930). Hence, it would be reasonable to assume that there is a distinct pattern of T2DM prevalence in ethnic populations, making it essential to rediscover the detection and management guidelines for the disease.
However, the striking statistical difference does not occur in different ethnic communities. Overwhelmed with the social pressure and stigmatization, lesbian and bisexual women are more prone to struggle with mental disorders and substance abuse. These factors, in their turn, contribute to higher levels of obesity. More precisely, the BMI mediation identified that lesbian and bisexual women “had a 27% higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than heterosexual women,” especially at younger ages (Corliss et al., 2018, p. 1448). Hence, quantitative evidence demonstrates that nowadays, there is a major gap between the management and prevention of T2DM in minorities and the White cisgender straight population, mainly due to the lack of individualized and culturally sensitive care management.
The present paper focused on the two levels of research questions from the scientific and analytical perspectives on the matter of T2DM pathophysiology and prevalence in minorities. The answers to these questions lead to four primary outputs. First, T2DM is a complex metabolic condition that is characterized by low insulin release in the body and hyperglycemia. Secondly, the widespread risk factors for T2DM make it statistically one of the most common health conditions in the US. Thirdly, the increased predisposition to the risk factors and metabolic and cultural specifics makes minorities more physically vulnerable to T2DM. Finally, the statistics demonstrate that mental hardship, obesity, and different levels of insulin sensitivity and metabolism make the minorities’ risk of T2DM three to five times higher. Hence, it is of paramount importance to put more effort into the patterns of individualizing care for minorities.
Ethical and Cultural Perspectives
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while remaining an overwhelming public health challenge for the US population, is a special burden for the minority groups. According to scholarly research, ethnic minorities nationwide, despite a higher predisposition rate, struggle with diabetes management and timely interventions (Joo & Liu, 2021). The purpose of this paper is to examine the ethical and cultural perspectives on the issue of T2DM in minorities. The ethical perspective inquiries are as follows:
- Level 1: What are the ethical obstacles to T2DM management and diagnosis?
- Level 2: What are the ethical obstacles to treating T2DM in ethnic and cultural minorities?
The cultural research questions are:
- Level 1: What cultures and societies are most affected by T2DM?
- Level 2: How is the issue of T2DM management addressed among ethnic minorities in the US?
The prevention and management of T2DM is an ethically and economically challenging endeavor because the nationwide prevalence of the disease implies equality in treatment and health care access. As far as primary T2DM intervention is concerned, some researchers suggest that bureaucracy and lack of a functional preventive framework create the ethical challenge of equal access to care (D’Souza, 2017). Moreover, the financial burden for modern T2DM treatment accounts for unequal access to medications. According to D’Souza (2017), the market-driven pharmaceutics for T2DM management promote costly solutions and disqualify cheaper options in order to exploit the business opportunities of one of the most widespread diseases in the US. The scope of the disease, especially in the American context, requires modifications in terms of medication and preliminary screening options for the population.
Another ethical challenge of T2DM management is effectively monitoring the patients’ adherence to treatment. Indeed, according to Godman et al. (2020), many people who live with T2DM do not have proper access to the educational tools that improve their self-management rates and diminish the risk of co-morbidities. Hence, it becomes evident that the population affected by T2DM nowadays faces the challenges of equality and proper public health concern about disease prevention. The issue, however, while depending significantly on the socio-economic status of the patient, disproportionally affects the minority groups.
Among 37 million Americans living with T2DM, the majority of patients have a diverse ethnic background. Thus, people of Hispanic origin and Black and Native American communities constitute nearly 40% of T2DM patients (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020). The challenges for minority groups find their roots in biological and socio-cultural factors. The socio-cultural factors include “low income and decreased access to education and health care” (Aguayo-Mazzucato et al., 2018, p. 1). Thus, the ethical challenge of equal access to treatment and screening is explicitly challenging for non-White communities, as the lack of financial opportunities to adhere to the treatment and poor medical supervision stand in the way of T2DM management.
The issue is aggravated by the minorities’ biological component to treatment. According to Aguayo-Mazzucato et al. (2018), physiological factors include a higher predisposition to obesity and lower insulin sensitivity. These factors, while common for ethnic minorities, contribute to the family history of diabetes and high genetic susceptibility to the disease. Meanwhile, the public sector’s efforts for T2DM management remain the same for the population. The existing preventative programs for minority populations do not demonstrate the desired outcomes (Godman et al., 2020).
The most important ethical challenge to T2DM management among ethnic minorities is minority stigmatization and discrimination in the community. According to LeBrón et al. (2019), racial and ethnic discrimination in society leads to higher stress-related mental disorders and diabetes-related distress. As a result, biases, and discrimination tend to have a mediating impact on the patients’ HbA1c levels. Moreover, the racial bias associated with ethnic minorities limits the community’s ability to have a decent socio-economic status and receive a proper education. Thus, the ethical problem of discrimination, while increasing one’s chances of becoming susceptible to T2DM, later creates a challenge for the disease’s proper management and timely access to health care.
Considering the information above, it can be concluded that currently, T2DM management and diagnosis face the challenges of inequality and market-driven treatment strategies. As far as ethnic minorities are concerned, the ethical obstacles are exacerbated by stigma and discrimination in the community. Hence, there is a need to develop a functional framework to address these obstacles and promote efficient diabetes management in the ethnic communities affected.
The first question related to the cultural inquiries addresses the ethnic and social groups most affected by T2DM. Thus, according to the latest CDC (2020) report, ethnic communities with the higher T2DM rates include the Native American population (14.7%), people of Hispanic origin (12.5%), African American people (11.7%), and Asian community (9.2%) (p. 4). Such statistics prove the existence of significant care and management barriers for minority groups. Among these populations, the most affected social groups include individuals aged 45 and older with low socio-economic status associated with low pay rates and a lack of higher education (CDC, 2020). Hence, while the White population remains one of the least affected groups in terms of T2DM, the minority populations need specific attention from the public and the clinical community.
One of the reasons for such a disproportional impact on the ethnic minorities is the ambiguous cultural beliefs among different groups. Thus, for example, the Hispanic community of farmworkers from Florida resort to alternative non-clinical methods of treating T2DM (Tyson et al., 2019). They choose these options both because they lack access to health care centers in the community and because the proper medical intervention is costly. At the time of the research, many respondents had high HbA1c rates and were diagnosed with obesity (Tyson et al., 2019). Other social groups at the risk of T2DM development include smokers, physically inactive people, and people with high blood pressure and cholesterol rates, especially the male population (CDC, 2020). According to recent studies, ethnicity is considered one of the risk-enhancing factors for higher low-density lipoprotein (American Heart Association, 2019). Hence, it can be concluded that while almost every ethnic minority is at higher risk of developing T2DM, minority representatives with poor lifestyles and low socio-economic status are affected the most.
Considering the unprecedently high rates of T2DM in the US population, public health initiatives nowadays focus on creating efficient tools for disease management. According to the systematic review by Jang et al. (2018), some of the most recent management interventions include text-based reminders, online educational texts, web-based self-management programs with patient-tailored feedback and recommendations, and personal health records supported by health providers. Although these tools have proved their efficacy in increasing treatment adherence rates and patient motivation, technology-based management techniques are not accessible to most ethnic and social communities at risk.
Many studies oriented at finding ways to improve T2DM self-management are comprised of White participants, which means that the efficiency of these interventions is based on the samples which have the cultural and socio-economic advantage over the populations affected by the condition (Jang et al., 2018). Apart from existing social and cultural barriers to T2DM management, ethnic and social minorities are also at a disadvantage of having poor access to technology-based interventions. Meanwhile, the evidence shows that culturally tailored T2DM interventions such as disease knowledge promotion and access to health care programs have a beneficial impact on the disease outcomes (Joo & Liu, 2021). Hence, the issue of T2DM management among ethnic and social minorities is not addressed to a necessary extent, as the majority of intervention tools are studied on White patients who have an evident advantage over non-White counterparts.
The issue of T2DM prevalence among ethnic and social minorities remains extremely relevant in the American context. Currently, the groups susceptible to the disease include ethnic minorities, people with low socio-economic status, and people with an unhealthy lifestyle. Minority groups living with T2DM, while having inconsistent access to health care and a higher predisposition to the disease, are also faced with the stress of racial and cultural stigma that impedes the process of creating meaningful medical interventions. Both cultural and ethical components of T2DM management have now become crucial in the context of addressing the diabetes pandemic nationwide. Most relevant studies on diabetes today have no regard for the socio-economic and cultural status of the patients, as it promotes costly treatment and technology-based management solutions. Moreover, the management guidelines for T2DM do not account for explanatory tools for people with no access to high education and fundamental knowledge about the disease. Hence, considering the facts above, it can be concluded that T2DM management among ethnic minorities requires more culturally sensitive interventions.
While the issue of T2DM in minorities remains extremely relevant in the US context, it is evident that a tangible solution to this problem will be to encourage public health workers to develop and promote efficient management frameworks for underserved communities. Thus, it is vital to develop public programs on education about T2DM risk factors, medical treatment, and lifestyle management, as well as introduce free support groups for people minorities living with T2DM.
Evidence from the literature review demonstrates that currently, minority groups suffer from biological, emotional, and socio-economic factors of T2DM, including genetic predisposition, low insulin sensitivity, high rates of mental distress and obesity associated with mental disorders and financial challenges, uncertain economic status, and others. For this reason, conventional approaches to costly self-management of T2DM are not suitable for populations with little to no knowledge about diabetes and its complications for the human body. To minimize the incidence of T2DM, public health professionals need to establish a solid reach-out framework of free diabetes screening and education. Furthermore, it is imperative to develop a community-based weight management program and physical activity programs for people in risk groups to limit T2DM’s effect on the body.
Undeniably, such a solution can have some objections concerning the limited health care’s financial and human resources to address such a complex and scoping issue. However, investing in public health and T2DM management education can potentially save millions of dollars on preventing new T2DM cases and operating costs for the treatment. Hence, promoting T2DM management in minorities through accessible communication channels is beneficial not only for the population’s health but for the health care budget as well.
Further research should focus on a more detailed examination of the proposed public health interventions. The present paper outlines potential solutions, such as education on T2DM management and cultural sensitivity, healthy lifestyle promotion, and support groups. However, it would be beneficial to present quantitative evidence on the effectiveness of these approaches in order to define which solution is the most cost-efficient and meaningful for the community.
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