General Purpose: To inform and raise awareness
Specific Purpose: I want to inform my audience about the common myth about tap water being more harmful than bottled water.
Thesis: Although bottled water is traditionally preferred to tap water because of its supposedly improved quality and its effective promotion, tap water, in fact, is of a nonetheless, if not more, positive effect on people’s health than bottled water.
- [Attention Getter] Without water, the entire humankind would not last even for three days. In each and every aspect of human life water is required.
- [Topic Justification] As a result, getting safe and healthy water for drinking purposes has been a thorn in the flesh for many years. Despite the common belief that tap water is harmful, it is actually better than bottled water, as bottled water is not as clean and safe as tap water.
- [Speaker Credibility] My name is _____________________ and I have carried out a major research on the effects of both tap and bottled water. In addition, having worked with one of the water bottling firms, I can confirm that nowadays bottled water has gained popularity among consumers.
- [Preview of Main Ideas] In recent years, the discussion has been whether bottled water is better than tap water to be used for drinking purposes. While there are people who argue that bottled water is safe to drink compared to tap water, I maintain that tap water is actually better.
- [Transition] The gap between the bottled water and the tap one has been cultivated for decades.
- [First Main Point] As a result, people prefer bottled water to the tap one due to the promotion campaign for the former.
- [First level of subordination] This has been propelled by the belief that bottled water is healthy and safe due to the fact that it is processed before packaging.
- [Supporting material] Gleick (89) states that many people are opting to drinking bottled water as opposed to tap water.
- [Second level of subordination] On the same note, given that bottled water is sold in sealed and labeled containers makes many consumers assume that the process is always up to standard.
- [Transition] Contrary to this notion, the fact is that bottled water is not so clean and safe as tap water.
- [Second Main Point] Actually, tap water has been for a long time subjected to stringent laws governing bottled water.
- [First level of subordination]
- [Supporting material] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which regulates supply of tap water is strict and regularly checks the supply companies for compliance.
- [Supporting material] However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which is tasked with the duty of regulating bottled water can sometimes take up to three years to visit a firm that processes bottled water.
- [Clarification of supporting material] Consequently, regulation should not be used as a reference point when deciding whether to take bottled or tap water.
- [Clarification of supporting material] The idea that bottled water has a higher concentration of vital minerals than tap water is therefore misplaced and wrong.
- [Second level of subordination] Consequently, regulation should not be used as a reference point when deciding whether to take bottled or tap water.
- [Supporting material] Hill (170) found in his study that as far as mineral contents are concerned, both bottled water and tap water have relatively the same components. The idea that bottled water has a higher concentration of vital minerals than tap water is, therefore, wrong.
- [Supporting material] More importantly, tap water contains some of the elements that bottled water my not possess due to the properties of the plastic container, as the recent researches state (Lee para. 1).
- [Clarification of supporting material] Both tap and bottled water have the same minerals.
- [Clarification of supporting material] Plastic containers make bottled water have negative effect on people’s health.
- [Transition] EPA has also carried out many researches on the issue.
- [Third Main Point] Reports from studies that have been done on bottled water show that it is sometimes contaminated with harmful chemicals which are in most instances untested.
- [First level of subordination] Bottled water has negative effect on people’s health.
- [Supporting material] In their declaration, the firms are required to state the contaminating substances as well as their effects on the health of the consumers. Unfortunately, this is not the case with bottled water (World Health Organization 45).
- [Clarification of supporting material]
- [Second level of subordination] Bottled water uses averagely three litres of water to produce one liter of bottled water.
- [Supporting material] The cost of transporting bottled water is higher than that of transporting tap water (Gleick 112).
- [Supporting material] Advocating for bottled water promotes environmental degradation (World Health Organization 45).
- [Clarification of supporting material] In the process of bottled water rectification, energy is required and this emits carbon dioxide gases into the atmosphere.
- [Clarification of supporting material] Furthermore, these bottles release toxic substances to the environment when they are destroyed. Additionally, water bottling firms are nowadays recycling water bottles (Hill 299).
[Conclusion] It is important to note that, when advocating for either bottled or tap water, one must consider all aspects
- [Restatement/summary of main ideas] At face value, bottled water might seem to be the best option compared to tap water. However, a closer look at the two indicates that there is no much difference between them as far as mineral composition is concerned.
- [Closing statement] From a holistic point of view, tap water is safer compared to bottled water.
Gleick, Peter H. Bottled and Sold: The Story Behind Our Obsession With Bottled Water. Washington: Island Press. 2010. Print.
Hill, Marquita K. Understanding Environment Pollution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2010. Print.
Lee, Katherine. The Negative Effects of Using Plastic Drinking Bottles. 2014. Web.
World Health Organization. Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking-water: Public Health Significance. Washington: World Health Organization Press. 2009. Print.