The Migration of Animals and Transmission of Parasites

Eric Morgan (2018) aims at developing a framework to predict the flow of parasites from wild animals to domestic species in Kazakhstan and Botswana. The researcher examines the way parasites adapt to the changeable environment, as well as the migration of wild animals that is often unpredictable. The limitations of these tools are mentioned, which is essential for people choosing the most effective method. This paper concentrates on the suggested model and puts it into a wider context related to the transition of parasites.

One of the primary findings articulated in the lecture is concerned with the exposure of domestic animals to wild species. Morgan (2018) provides evidence indicating that this exposure negative correlates with the flow of parasites. The occurrence of migrating species did not lead to an increase in infections among domestic animals, which suggests that shared grazing can be beneficial for livestock. It is noteworthy that special structures have been used to develop various paradigms related to livestock management. For example, White, Forester, and Craft (2017) review the recent literature on the matter and claim that special structure has a considerable impact on the evolution of hosts and parasites. It is stressed that diversity is associated with more fierce competition among species, which creates a favourable environment for host animals. Therefore, the assumptions concerning the benefits of shared grazing are present in many studies.

Morgan (2018) also focuses on the impact seasonal changes have on the spread of infection. The peak of the transmission depends on the temperature and rainfall, meaning that each area has certain periods of the highest risk of contamination. White, Forester, and Craft (2017) claim that the influence of climate is instrumental in shaping the transmission process. However, this aspect is applicable in the areas where seasonal changes characterised by fluctuating temperatures occur. Morgan (2018) notes that the model based on seasonal structures is confined to the use of specific territories.

Another important point Morgan (2018) makes is related to the use of community-led monitoring. This method has proved to be effective in Botswana where resources are limited, and people cannot afford such instruments as all stock vaccination. Craft (2015) also claims that network modelling is an effective tool to predict transmission dynamics. The researcher adds that the mismatch between the spread of infection and migration patterns of host animals should be considered when developing models for livestock management. Both authors mention the need to use proper methods to collect and analyse data.

In conclusion, it is necessary to note that the seminar under analysis includes a detailed review of the existing paradigms aimed at predicting and preventing the transmission of parasites to domestic animals. Although it does not contain new information, it includes an analysis of the models that have been used in different areas. The benefits and limitations of these frameworks are outlined, which makes the information valuable. The presented data are supported by other studies, and the author provides the corresponding references, which validates the given information. Finally, the findings and conclusions that are put to the fore are consistent with the recent research.

Reference List

Craft, ME 2015, ‘Infectious disease transmission and contact networks in wildlife and livestock’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 370, no. 1669. Web.

Morgan, E 2018, Animal migration and parasite transmission: implications for managing disease in wildlife and livestock, School of Veterinary Sciences.

White, LA, Forester, JD & Craft, ME 2017, ‘Dynamic, spatial models of parasite transmission in wildlife: their structure, applications and remaining challenges’, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 559-580.