Breast Cancer: Anatomy, Physiology and Treatment

Subject: Oncology
Pages: 3
Words: 882
Reading time:
4 min


Breast cancer is a condition that causes breast cells to proliferate uncontrollably. The lobules, duct, or connective tissue are all possible places for growth to begin. The lobules and ducts are where most growth begins. It is possible for cancer to spread to other regions of the body via blood arteries and lymph vessels (“What is Breast Cancer?”), what is medically referred to as Metastasis. This article focuses on the anatomy and physiology of breast cancer, how it is treated, the adverse effects of treatment and the final course of the condition. Among the treatment options discussed, the conclusion is a personal preference.

Anatomy and Physiology of Breast Cancer

The Glandular tissue in women is important for production of milk and fatty tissue. The size of the breast is determined by the quantity of fat in it. The lobes are divided into around 20 divisions and are responsible for production of milk. Milk is produced by the lobules within the lobe. The milk is transported by ducts, which join to bigger ducts that lead to the nipple. The connective tissue and ligaments that give the breast its form also support the breast. The nerves guarantee that the breast can perceive what is going on around it. The breast also contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and lymph vessels.

If cancer cells are not treated, they will develop abnormally and may spread throughout the body. Breast cancer is more common in women, but it may also strike men. A lump, crimson discharge from the nipple, and changes in the skin are all indicators of malignancy. Breast cancer (DerSarkissian), invasive lobular carcinoma, and invasive ductal carcinoma are all cancer-related breast diseases. A physical examination, as well as the use of a mammography, breast ultrasound, and breast magnetic resonance imaging, can all be used to identify the presence of cancer in the breast.

Methods of Breast Cancer Treatment

Treatment options are determined on characteristics such as the tumor’s subtype, stage, genetic markers, and the existence of known hereditary breast cancer mutations. The patient’s age, mesa pause status, health, and personal preferences are considered in choosing the method of treatment. Some of the therapist treatment methods used include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. A surgical operation is carried out by an oncologist to remove the tumor and the surrounding healthy cells as well as to survey auxiliary lymph nodes. Radiation Therapy involves killing of malignant cells by use of high energy x-rays. A radiation oncologist is an expert in treating the cancer cells using radiotherapy.

Chemotherapy entails the use of medications to destroy cancerous cells, prevent them from reproducing, and slow their development. It can help reduce a big tumor when it is given before surgery, making surgery simpler and lowering the chance of cancer recurrence. Hormonal Therapy is effective in treating tumor that test positive for estrogen or progesterone receptors. Use of hormonal therapy to block the hormones would help prevent recurrence and lead to death of the cancerous cells. If applied before a surgery, it would help to ease the process (“Breast Cancer: Types of Treatment”), shrink the tumor and block recurrence.

Adverse Reactions Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

Each of the treatment approaches has its own adverse reactions which are detailed below. Surgery as a means treating breast cancer has the effects of pain, discomfort and has a high risk of infections. After surgery, the patient is affected by mobility restrictions. Radiation therapy causes the side effects of irritation and weariness in breast cancer treatment. Due to the use of bras and other clothing, sores may form on the treated region. In chemotherapy, the extent of the effects is determined on the type of chemotherapy agent employed. Hair loss, nausea and vomiting, low blood count with consequent exhaustion, tingling and numbness, damage to the ovaries, and in rare cases, heart weakness is some of the side effects. Hormone treatment causes the side effects such as moods wings (“Breast Cancer Treatment Options and Side Effects”), vaginal dryness and hot flashes. The effects vary depending on the medication used.

Short-term and Long-term Prognosis of above Breast Cancer Treatments

Each of the therapeutic approaches performed has had a short- and long-term outcome. Radiotherapy lowered the risk of cancer-related mortality by more than 30%. With no reported adverse effects (“Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer”), it raised the survival rate by roughly 10% ten years following therapy. The survival percentage of cancer patients who received chemotherapy was greater than 98 percent five years after treatment and better than 93 percent after nine years. In both situations (Simon), individuals who had chemotherapy had a larger proportion compared to those who didn’t. More than 92 percent of individuals who underwent surgery survived three years. Also, over 82 percent of those who survived five years were still living (Arrington et al. 606), whereas just 58 percent survived seven years. After ten years of hormone treatment (Simon), the risk of recurrence and mortality was lowered.


If someone I cared about was diagnosed with breast cancer, I would utilize radiation. This is because it has no long-term adverse effects. In addition, it has been shown to enhance survival rates by 10% after ten years. It is my preferred method since it raises cancer patients’ survival rates by more than 30%.

Works Cited

Arrington, Amanda K., et al. “Life expectancy after curative-intent treatment of breast cancer: impact on long-term follow-up care.” The American Surgeon 80.6 (2014): 604-609. Web.

“Breast Cancer Treatment Options and Side Effects.” Cancer Support Community, Web.

“Breast Cancer: Types of Treatment.” Cancer.Net, Web.

DerSarkissian, Carol. “The Breast (Human Anatomy): Picture, Function, Conditions, & More.” Webmd, Web.

“Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer.” Texas Oncology. Web.

Simon, Stacy. “Study: More Breast Cancer Patients Can Safely Skip Chemotherapy.” Cancer.Org, Web.

“Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival.” National Cancer Institute, Web.

“What is Breast Cancer?” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Web.