Cell Phones and Health. Bibliography

Subject: Healthcare Research
Pages: 5
Words: 1611
Reading time:
6 min
Study level: College

Dongre, A. S., Inamdar, I. F., & Gattani, P. L. (2017). Nomophobia: A study to evaluate mobile phone dependence and impact of cell phone on health. National Journal of Community Medicine, 8(11), 688-693. Web.

The article examines the dependence patterns, nomophobia prevalence, and health impacts of cell phone usage. The researchers utilized a cross-sectional exploratory design and random sampling to conduct a study involving youths aged 16 to 20. The results portrayed that the prevalence of nomophobia stood at 68.92%, while males exhibited a higher dependence level (82.91%) on cell phones than females (31.25%). Corresponding to Gupta et al. (2016), the increased mobile phone usage leads to lack of sleep, which affects a person’s lifestyle and mental stability. This source also identifies some of the underlying factors, which cause cell phone use addiction. I intend to use the article in generating recommendations relating to health education that would essential to embrace preventive care in the use of the mobile phone, among other technologies.

The article’s information is relevant to my topic, especially with the inclusion of some non-substance behavioral addictions to the addictive disorders in the latest expanded criteria. I selected the article because it chronologically explains people’s excitement with technologies, such as cell phones, to the extent of losing control, thus increasing impulsivity. Indeed, the negative impacts of increased use of mobile phones are evident in face-to-face communication, in which some individuals find it challenging to express themselves. The authors of the article are experts in medical fields and teach in medical institutions of higher learning. For example, Prakash L. Gattani is a professor and head of the community medicine department at Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Medical College. The source is also a peer-reviewed journal article published recently and contains updated and relevant information about current health science issues.

Gupta, N., Garg, S., & Arora, K. (2016). Pattern of mobile phone usage and its effects on psychological health, sleep, and academic performance in students of a medical university. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy, and Pharmacology, 6(2), 132-139. Web.

In their article, Gupta et al. (2016) explore the young generation’s dependency rate on cell phones, resulting in psychological problems. The authors assessed the students’ mobile phone use pattern and the associated adverse impacts on sleep, mental health, and academic performances, primarily in a medical university. Using a descriptive study, the researchers selected 1000 medical students between 17 and 24 years old to evaluate their primary objective. Questionnaires were used to collect the data from the participants, and the data were analyzed statistically. The results demonstrated that most students used mobile phones to communicate, coordinate activities, address emergencies, and download videos, games, and music. Additionally, the mobile phone use at night was highly significantly (p < 0.0001) related to a decline in study habits, challenges in waking up, tiredness, class lateness, and concentration difficulties. The researchers concluded that although cell phones positively influenced people’s daily lives, their overuse presented adverse effects on sleep, psychological health, and students’ academic performance.

Although the study outcomes may have been biased due to its limitation to the medical students only, it presents an explicit picture of cell phones’ impacts among learners in different learning institutions. I selected this article because it revolves around the youths representing the highest percentage of the population that overuse mobile phones, mainly on social media platforms. Notably, the source is relevant to my topic because it shows a positive relationship between cell phone use and adverse health impacts. I intend to use this article in comparing its results with other scholarly materials, thus deductively helping in making rational decisions on cell phone usage. The authors are well conversant with health subjects because they all work with the physiology departments in India. For instance, Naveeta Gupta is an instructor at Guru Gobind Medical College located in Faridkot, India. The source is also a peer-reviewed journal article published within the recommended five-year gap and provides updated information about the topic.

McKay, F. H., Cheng, C., Wright, A., Shill, J., Stephens, H., & Uccellini, M. (2018). Evaluating mobile phone applications for health behaviour change: A systematic review. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 24(1), 22-30. Web.

In the article, McKay et al. (2018) argue that the increased smartphone access has led to an escalated development of applications, thus changing users’ health behaviors. In this regard, they investigated and evaluated health apps, which help individuals adopt best practice approaches. Upon reviewing 38 articles, researchers concluded that developers must assess the effectiveness and quality of their apps to improve health and behavioral change. Undeniably, informative apps can assist gain insights into various life aspects, including healthcare, thus avoiding extreme mental effects of cell phone addiction. I selected this article because it extends beyond the existing health problems, such as social media addiction and distress, to examine factors that inspire people to spend most of their time on phones. With information on the app’s quality, effectiveness, and followers, it is easy to develop strategies, which transform the content to help people embrace healthy practices.

The article is relevant to my topic because it helps the audience visualize alternative ways to use smartphone applications to gain vital insights into health issues. Instead of users spending much time on unhelpful social media platforms, which corrupt their morals, they can access apps that inform them about their wellness, among other life and educational topics. Consequently, I intend to use this source to describe different ways cell phones may help improve health, and most importantly, promote the eight dimensions of wellness. The authors are actively engaged in Australia’s health field, and thus, they have the expertise needed to provide reliable information. Additionally, the article is peer-reviewed and published within the recommended five-year timeframe. Therefore, it contains the latest information on the topic and can be used for scholarly and academic works.

Melnick, R. L. (2019). Commentary on the utility of the National Toxicology Program study on cell phone radiofrequency radiation data for assessing human health risks despite unfounded criticisms aimed at minimizing the findings of adverse health effects. Environmental Research, 168, 1-6. Web.

The article reflects on the study outcomes, which assess the human health risks emanating from cell phone radiation. The national toxicology program (NTP) administrators engaged in research on the phones’ energy impacts using mice and rats exposed to the global system for mobile communication (GSM) and code-division multiple access (CDMA) radiofrequency radiations. The researchers tested the null hypothesis, which stated that mobile phone radiations at non-thermal level conditions do not cause harmful health impacts. The results disapproved of the null hypothesis because mice and rats developed acoustic neuromas and gliomas (Schawn cell tumors), indicating that human beings might also be exposed to the same health risks. This argument has attracted various criticisms due to the lack of a direct connection to a disease originating from cell phones. However, the links of mobile phone radiations with cancerous cells are still apparent. Consequently, I intend to use this source to delve deeper into the implications of cell phone radiations on human health.

The source is relevant to the topic because it lays a foundation for comprehensive research. Based on the study’s outcomes and the criticisms, the article would help examine every argument broadly to ascertain the reality. NTP is a renowned inter-agency program of the Health and Human Services (HHS) in the United States. Therefore, it has the required human and financial capacity to conduct credible research. It would be illogical to discredit the study’s results based on the account that no death has been reported due to mobile phone radiations’ adverse effect. The author, Ronald L. Melnick, is an independent consultant after working as a senior toxicologist at NTP for over twenty-eight years and has expertise in the field. Additionally, the article was recently published, and it contains data, which aligns with modern research and innovations. It is also peer-reviewed, and its information is reliable and credible for academic and scholarly studies.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Do cell phones pose a health hazard? FDA. Web.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agency clarifies the connection between mobile phone use and serious health hazards. There have been reports of a link between cell phone radiations and cancer cells in the recent past. Although FDA agrees that mobile phones emit specific radiofrequency energy, the organization insists that such radiations are non-ionizing. As a result, the FDA concludes that cell phone radiation does not pose a serious health threat to humans, and existing public health data confirm this assertion. I chose this article because it contradicts the NTP findings as illustrated by Melnick (2019). It would be essential to examine both articles’ claims and identify verifiable facts while noting aspects requiring further investigation.

FDA is a reputable federal government agency, which deals with the safety of Americans. For example, FDA monitors and evaluates public health information on cancer illness in the United States. For nearly 30 years, its scientists and physicians have not found any evidence of health threats relating to cell phone radiations. I have chosen this source because it is the FDA’s mandate to safeguard all Americans’ welfare, and thus, its research remains significant in pursuit of the truth. Apart from the FDA’s credibility, the lack of notable death or disease associated with a cell phone makes this article relevant to my research report. I intend to use its information to discredit the existing connection between cell phones and cancer. FDA published this article last year, 2020, using evidence from its continuous research over the years. Therefore, it allows the audience to use logical reasoning to make a rational decision on the subject.