Theory in Practice
It is necessary to note that nursing theory has helped to facilitate healthcare services provided to patients. For instance, Dorothea Orem’s theory has contributed greatly to the development of nursing. Education of patients and their caregivers enables all stakeholders involved (patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals) to benefit. Sampaio, Aquino, Araujo, and Galvao (2007) note that the application of the theory has proved to considerably improve patient care. Rafii, Shahpoorian, and Azarbaad (2008) also support this idea, but the researchers also note that the process of patients’ education is associated with several difficulties as some patients are reluctant to follow nurses’ advice. Therefore, it is important to take into account the peculiarities of each case when trying to apply the theory.
Brief Outline of the Nursing Plan
In the present case, it is possible to apply Orem’s theory as, at least, the caregiver is committed to providing adequate caregiving. There can be some difficulties with educating the patient as many elderly people are reluctant to follow the necessary instructions. The nursing plan for Mr. Issler will include all the necessary prescriptions of the physician (after the patient’s check-up). Body weight will be weighed each day and the patient will have a specific diet. All the necessary vital signs will be checked daily. It is essential to check the patient’s thyroid. The patient has taken certain medication for years and it is vital to understand whether ‘the bag’ of medicine can be used in the patient’s treatment. Perhaps, it is necessary to reconsider the use of certain medications as the health condition may have changed. The nurse should also pay attention to such symptoms as dizziness, sweatiness, fatigue, paleness, and so on. It is important to have the correct diagnosis and detailed treatment. The nurse should make sure that she communicates with other healthcare professionals properly.
Orem’s Theory in the Nursing Plan
Apart from the precise medical activities, the nurse should also educate the patient as well as the caregiver. It is important to tell Mr. Issler and his daughter-in-law about his health condition and the way he can improve it. They should know about the necessary diet, physical exercise, and medical procedures. It is important to explain that the patient will have specific benefits from each prescription. More so, the patient should learn to pay attention to his symptoms and let his caregiver and health care professionals know how he feels. The patient and his caregiver should also know what to do in several situations. This will enable the patient to call the nurse in case of an emergency. This will also ensure the effectiveness of the treatment. According to Orem’s theory, the patient and the caregiver should develop a proper interpersonal relationship (Sampaio et al., 2007). The nurse should find the right words to persuade the patient and his caregiver to follow all the prescriptions. It is the nurse who should be able to develop a trustful relationship with the patient and his caregiver.
Rafii, F., Shahpoorian, F., Azarbaad, M. (2008). The reality of learning self-care needs during hospitalization: Patients’ and nurses’ perceptions. Self-Care, Dependent-Care, & Nursing 16(2), 34-39.
Sampaio, F.A.A., Aquino, P.S., Araujo, T.L., & Galvao, M.T.G. (2008). Nursing care to an ostomy patient: Application of the Orem’s theory. Acta Paul Enferm, 21(1), 94-100.