Family Nursing Care Plan for a 3-Person African American Household

Introduction

When addressing healthcare issues that affect multiple generations, it is vital to assess the underlying common cause. The patterns and established routines can be detrimental to the health of an entire household, which is especially harmful to African Americans due to the disparities in access to healthcare (Abbott & Elliott, 2017). For this paper, the family nursing care plan will be constructed for a 3-person African American household from the westside of Chicago. The family consists of a 50-year-old African American female, her 35-year-old daughter, who has a 10-year old son. Several critical health problems affect all household members and require immediate attention from healthcare specialists. This plan is intended to outline the family’s current and potential health issues and provide an intervention plan that will alleviate them.

Family Background and Health Information

First and foremost, it is essential to determine what socioeconomic factors affect this household. The family in question has a stable income, and the 35-year-old female provides sufficient support for her child and older adult. However, there are noticeable issues with eating habits due to an excessive calory intake prevalent in the diet of every member of the family. They can be linked with the lacking access to healthy food and healthcare facilities within the immediate area of this household.

There are several key health issues within this family that must be addressed by this intervention. The most prevalent one is obesity, which affects all household members and creates severe health issues for both females. Although the youngest member of this family does not yet have any related morbidities, obesity opens up a possibility for numerous other health issues to appear in the future. Therefore, the focus of this intervention will be on the dietary habits of this household.

Another health issue that heavily affects the family is hypertension. There are heritable factors contributing to this problem, although obesity is the primary cause of its occurrence (Musemwa & Gadegbeku, 2017). Other related concerns that create health disparity are salt sensitivity, high dietary sodium intake, and low potassium intake (Musemwa & Gadegbeku, 2017). Hypertension can lead to more severe morbidities and death and must be addressed with the utmost urgency.

Intervention Plan

In this case, the intervention requires ongoing support from a nursing practitioner. His or her role is to share the knowledge regarding the possible benefits that could be obtained from following the proposed directions. Moreover, it is necessary to involve other healthcare professionals to resolve more complex issues, such as hypertension. Every step of the intervention must consider the family’s racial and ethnic background, socioeconomic status, and current lifestyle.

The goal for both females is the successful treatment of hypertension, which requires a specific approach for African-American patients. Musemwa and Gadegbeku (2017) argue that the tailored guidelines are necessary due to the combination of “genetic, biological, and social factors prevalent among African Americans” (p. 1). Not only does it require lifestyle modifications, which will be addressed by the obesity prevention plan, it also calls for pharmacotherapy (Musemwa & Gadegbeku, 2017). Calcium channel blockers will serve as the initial therapy (Musemwa & Gadegbeku, 2017). Current damage must be assessed to determine the need to combine this drug with others for an enhanced effect, especially for an older female. A visit to a local clinic must be sufficient to determine the exact medications.

Eliminating obesity will be the goal for all family members. There are weight loss programs available for the target population in Chicago. For this intervention, it is possible to employ a specialist from one of these programs to help establish a proper schedule for physical activities and calory intakes. Information about correct nutrition is a vital source for health improvement. With the help of a professional dietitian, a nursing practitioner must be able to construct a suitable diet for an entire family that will aim to decrease their BMI gradually. Education regarding both nutrition and physical activities is also crucial, as it provides motivation for adherence (Burton et al., 2017). All of the resources for the proposed intervention are available in the urban area of Chicago.

Some adjustments must be taken into consideration due to the family’s racial and social background. African Americans show lesser adherence to the diets due to lacking knowledge and accessibility to help (Goode et al., 2017). Recommendations must also consider the availability of physical activity sites and the training intensity depending on generation. Staff that is involved in this intervention must have undergone a diversity training program to be able to address these issues in full successfully.

It might also be necessary to assess the mental health of the child. The study by Lindberg et al. (2020) reveals that obesity is “a strong risk factor for anxiety and depression” for children of both sexes, with the occurrence rates twice as higher than among non-obese children (p. 4). Therefore, a nursing practitioner must conduct surveys regarding the child’s mental health throughout the intervention and refer the family to a psychiatrist if any symptoms of a developing mental disorder begin to appear.

It would also be beneficial to share a list of resources that explain the implications of the existing and potential health conditions with the family. There are many guidelines accessible via the Internet, although it is essential to tailor a specific approach to suffice the family’s needs and requirements. Several public health programs exist that help people on a national level, and there are multiple smaller organizations that aim to achieve health equity across the country.

Outcomes and their Measurement

Lower blood pressure must be achieved within the period of 6 months among both females. Whenever possible, adherence to hypertension treatment must be assessed by a nursing practitioner to ensure stable progress. It is reasonable to aim towards the weight reduction for both females within the scope of five years. However, as the young organism is more adapted for rapid changes, the child can expect to lower his BMI within a shorter period.

To measure the outcomes of the proposed intervention, a nursing practitioner should remain in close contact with the family. It will enable him or her to collect necessary statistics, such as changes in the BMI of each family member. However, some statistics must be collected by the intervention participants themselves. Throughout this intervention, all family members will be asked to keep a journal with their daily calory intake. It is also necessary to collect the data regarding any changes in waist circumference and the total amount of daily physical activity for each family member.

Conclusion

In conclusion, there is a possibility to prevent further damage to the health of the family members via a well-planned intervention by a nurse practitioner. There is a strong need to share the knowledge regarding the necessity of proper dietary habits with both adults and the child. Moreover, since there is already a significant amount of damage done to their health, it is crucial to provide support with obesity and hypertension that are the primary health issues for this household. To address these two issues and prevent their adverse impact, a nurse practitioner must employ healthcare professionals who can help the family change their established negative habits. There are resources that are created specifically for African American families who experience similar problems, as they are common among this population. These resources include support groups, special courses, and nationwide programs.

References

Abbott, L. S., & Elliott, L. T. (2017). Eliminating health disparities through action on the social determinants of health: A systematic review of home visiting in the United States, 2005-2015. Public Health Nursing, 34(1), 2-30. Web.

Burton, W. M., White, A. N., & Knowlden, A. P. (2017). A systematic review of culturally tailored obesity interventions among African American adults. American Journal of Health Education, 48(3), 185-197. Web.

Goode, R. W., Styn, M. A., Mendez, D. D., & Gary-Webb, T. L. (2017). African Americans in standard behavioral treatment for obesity, 2001-2015: What have we learned? Western Journal of Nursing Research, 39(8), 1045-1069. Web.

Lindberg, L., Hagman, E., Danielsson, P., Marcus, C., & Persson, M. (2020). Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents with obesity: A nationwide study in Sweden. BMC Medicine, 18(1). Web.

Musemwa, N., & Gadegbeku, C. A. (2017). Hypertension in African Americans. Current Cardiology Reports, 19(12). Web.