Infection Prevention and Control (IPAC) is a set of methods and strategies to consistently prevent and reduce the risk of spreading infections in medical institutions. The role of IPAC is to monitor and provide certain precautions to prevent infection and improve the health and well-being of patients and employees of medical institutions within healthcare settings. Such practice includes supporting and developing practical approaches to infection control, promoting research in this area, and training personnel within the framework of this concept.
Isolation is considered a precautionary measure applied to separating a healthy person from a patient with an infectious disease to protect against various risks and prevent the spread of diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are three standard categories of precautions in hospitals: contact, droplet and airborne insulation (Nozin, 2020). The PPE necessary for each is gloves, masks, special protective glasses, aprons, dressing gowns, and shoe covers (MedlinePlus, 2020). These funds must be worn before entering the ward where infected patients are located. It is also important to wash properly after contact with the sick.
Diabetes is characterized by the common name for a group of chronic endocrine diseases. People with diabetes are more susceptible to various diseases and subsequent complications if urgent measures are not taken. Thus, potential complications can be both general immune disorders and blood clotting disorders, leading to a slowdown in the body’s response to various types of infection and wound healing (Abu-Ashour et al., 2018). Accordingly, people with high blood sugar levels are recommended to get vaccinated to minimize the risks of complications.
Pathology accompanied by a persistent increase in blood pressure refers to such a disease as hypertension. If a person does not start treatment in time, this can lead to severe and irreparable consequences. For this reason, it is essential to know what symptoms accompany the disease and eradicate it in the first stages on time. Typical signs and symptoms of hypertension are irregular heart rate, frequent headaches, fatigue, apathy, nausea, tinnitus, and nosebleeds (World Health Organization, 2021). However, a strong manifestation of the disease can cause chest pain, nausea, vomiting, a strong sense of anxiety, a veil before the eyes, and a cloud of consciousness. A quick and painless blood pressure measurement by a medical professional is the best way to determine hypertension.
COVID-19 is an entirely new infection and is still little studied. According to recent studies, some people do not experience any manifestations of the disease, while other people show a wide range of specific signs (Struyf et al., 2021). The main symptoms of coronavirus in the human body are loss of smell and taste, high fever, cough, sore throat, fatigue, apathy, and pain in muscles and joints (Struyf et al., 2021). On the other hand, when detecting such a disease, such signs as a low degree of oxygen saturation in the blood and lungs, blood pressure, and heart rate are also distinguished (Struyf et al., 2021). Studying these elements in a potentially infected patient will help the medical staff form more accurate data about his condition and health.
Currently, there are no proven and approved means of treating patients with coronavirus infections, but modern diagnostic methods have a significant role in containing COVID-19, preventing the virus from spreading later. Diagnostic tests for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 are based on two principles – molecular and antigenic. A molecular test is a more accurate diagnosis method; it allows medics to determine the genetic material or nucleic acid inside the viral particle. An antigen test has high specificity but less sensitivity, unlike the “molecular” type of diagnosis. This test establishes specific proteins of viral particles and usually takes place in shorter periods. It should be remembered that no test is 100% accurate, and their effectiveness may vary depending on the prevalence of the disease in the tested population.
SARS-CoV-2 infection can usually occur in a mild form and flow into a severe condition. Health experts note respiratory diseases as the most common complication in patients with COVID-19 (Deitrick et al., 2020). In addition to “severe consequences,” there are also strokes, coagulopathy, blood clots, hundreds of microthrombus in the lungs of some patients, as well as venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (Deitrick et al., 2020). In total, the coronavirus can cause severe complications in the heart, lungs, brain, kidneys, blood vessels, and other vital human systems and organs. Based on the data obtained, the nurse uses a lot of priority assessments in the activities. For instance, to determine a coronavirus infection, a medical professional should measure the patient’s temperature, check the breath, throat, and nose, and assess the condition and appearance (Hetzler, 2020). Thus, the assessment helps a nurse eradicate the spread of infection, improve patients’ health, and determine whether the goals are achieved or not.
The following three nursing goals apply to a hospitalized patient with coronavirus. Firstly, COVID-19 significantly affects the respiratory apparatus of a person, and a nurse should focus on respiratory support – to teach the correct breathing technique and control the level of oxygen saturation (Seelinger, 2021). Secondly, due to coronavirus infection, patients are more likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases, blood clotting disorders, and the risk of venous thromboembolism. In this situation, a medical professional should monitor the condition of a sick person, monitor neurological symptoms, and, in some cases, apply a compression device in practice (Seelinger, 2021). Thirdly, sometimes patients have symptoms of lack of smell and taste, which can lead to kidney complications if such signs are ignored. A medical professional should train the caregivers and patients in the rules of the competent and moderate consumption of food and liquid.
Abu-Ashour, W., Twells, L. K., Valcour, J. E., & Gamble, J. M. (2018). Diabetes and the occurrence of infection in primary care: a matched cohort study. BMC infectious diseases, 18 (1), pp. 1-8.
Deitrick, K., Adams, J., & Davis, J. (2020). Emergency nursing care of patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019. Journal of emergency nursing, 46(6), pp. 748–759.
Hetzler, Lynn. (2020). Nursing management of COVID-19. every nurse.
MedlinePlus. (2020). Isolation precautions. MedlinePlus. Web.
Nozin. (2020). What does “isolation” mean in hospitals?. Nozin.
Seelinger, B. (2021). Nursing care plan for outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 disease. American Nurse.
Struyf, T., Deeks, J.J., Dinnes, J., Takwoingi, Y., Davenport, C., Leeflang, M.M.G., Spijker, R., Hooft, L., Emperador, D., Domen, J., Horn, S.R.A.,Van den Bruel, A. (2021). Signs and symptoms to determine if a patient presenting in primary care or hospital outpatient settings has COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
World Health Organization. (2021). Hypertension. World Health Organization.