The African American is less educated about Breast cancer and the importance of self breast examination. A teaching plan is formulated so that the focus groups get a clear cut idea about breast cancer. The objective of the teaching plan is to provide education and teach them essential skills needed for self breast examination. Fifty percentage of the focus group have experienced Breast cancer either to their self or to their relatives. Hence the intervention is essential for them.
The purpose of this paper is to teach African Americans to conduct self breast examination. It deals with the importance of early diagnosis through self examination and the method of conducting self breast exams.
Statement of overall goal
- Provide them with theoretical framework of the breast cancer
- Provide them with sufficient inputs to motivate them to conduct self breast examination.
- Remove the stigmas related to self breast examination and Breast Cancer
- Teach them the skills to conduct self breast examination
- Evaluation of the over all program
Overall objective and contents
|1)Orientation of the program(Cognitive) |
2)Lecture on Breast Cancer(Cognitive)
3)Orientation to Self Breast Examination (Cognitive)
4) Attitudinal change
5)Teaching self breast examination (Psycho motive)
|Introduction to Breast Cancer Awareness Program |
Input session with a theoretical orientation on Breast Cancer
Input session with knowledge providing the importance of self Breast examination and early diagnosis
Teaching the steps and process of self Breast exams
|Discussing the Awareness Program |
Discussing the Question: what do you understand by Breast Cancer, providing pamphlets
Lecturing , OHP, Presentation
Discussing the attitudes of the clients especially fear, stigma, and feelings, conduct focus group discussions
Demonstrating the self examination. Providing the Pamphlets. Follow the instructions given in the pamphlets.
|Enquiry Session & Feed Back |
Feed back through Questionnaire
Feed back through questionnaire and conducting focus group discussion
Orientation about the Program
The aim of this session is to make the student familiar with Breast cancer and self breast examination
Introduction to Awareness program “The best way to fight breast cancer is to have a plan that helps you detect the disease in its early stages” & its importance. (Early detection saves lives, 2010, para.2).
Discussion about the importance of awareness about breast cancer which should focus to find out the stigmas among the African Americans
The Evaluation should be done based on a question-answer session and general feedback.
Theoretical Inputs about the Breast Cancer
The aim of this session is to enhance the clients with a clear conceptual clarification of Breast cancer and its risks.
Pamphlets, OHP, Notes
- “What is Breast Cancer?
- Breast cancer Statistics
- Breast Cancer Risk and Risk Factors
- Symptoms of Breast Cancer
- Managing breast Cancer fears” (Understanding breast cancer, 2008, para.3).
The African American does not have much awareness about the breast cancer and its risk factors. An early diagnosis is much helpful in the treatment plan of the patient.
Discussing the question, what do you understand by Breast Cancer?
The evaluation is done with a questionnaire containing breast cancer related questions.
Orientation to the Self Breast Examination
The session aims at providing an orientation about the self breast examination and its importance to early diagnosis. “All women over the age of 20 should practice regular monthly self breast examinations” (Breast self examination, n.d. para.1). Teaching Aid: Over Head Projector
- Self Breast Examination. The self breast examination is given prior importance.
- Clinical Examination
Breast examination Schedule
Feedback should be collected with interactive sessions.
The aim of this session is to find out the attitudinal barriers related to Breast cancer and self breast examination.
Focus group discussion.
- Stigmas. The fear of a side effect acts as a major barrier for them to go for a screening test. The fear of amputation of their breasts also increases the barrier. Lot of stigmas also exist in the focus group.
- Attitudes towards Breast Cancer.
Evaluation is done through the participatory and non-participatory observance.
Demonstration of Self Breast examination
The aim of this lesson plan is to teach self breast examination and its technique and position for African American women.
Transparency sheets, pamphlets, OHP Projector & White Board
Demonstration of Breast Self Examination
Breast Self-Exam is very important in identifying breast cancer and the test should be performed once a month. Women who have menstruation and who have not menstruation must perform the test but the women who are menstruating should do this test after a few days of menstruation while others ought to do it on the same day. The following self-Breast Test is a widely used one and it has mainly three steps. First one is facing a mirror, second one is lying down and the last one is in the shower. Facing a mirror includes four steps in inspecting the breast and first of all the client must stand in front of the mirror upright and assess the difference of both breasts. The difference in size, nipple inversion, bulging of the breast and any changes in the breast must be observed. The following four steps in inspecting the breast will help the client to assess whether a growing tumor has inflicted the client.
- “Inspect your breasts in the following 4 steps:
- With your arms at your sides
- With your arms overhead
- With your hands on hips – Press firmly to flex your chest muscles.
- Bent forward – Inspect your breasts” (Breast self exam, 2010, para.4).
(The five steps of a breast self exam. 2009).
Lying down is the second step in Self Breast Exam and the steps in this test must be performed for the right and left breast. Various steps at this stage are given in the following.
- “Place a pillow under your right shoulder.
- Put your right hand under your head.
- Check the entire breast area with the finger pads of your left hand.
- Use small circles and follow an up-and-down pattern.
- Use light, medium, and firm pressure over each area of the breast” (Breast self exam, 2010, para.6).
(Breast self examination, n.d.).
In the shower. The third step in the Brest Self-exam is performed in the bathroom while taking bath. This step is very important for some women because they find the breast masses while they take bath since the skin is moist. The various steps which are to be performed in this stage are given below.
- “Raise your right arm.
- With soapy hands and fingers flat, check your right breast.
- Use the same small circles and up-and-down pattern described earlier.
- Repeat on the left breast” (Breast self exam, 2010, para.8).
- There should be a discussion regarding breast cancer, its morbidity and mortality rate.
- Development of breast self exam technique
- The evaluation is done for the following things
- The effectiveness of the techniques
- The effectiveness of Teaching
- The usefulness of the method
Evaluation of the Teaching Program
The aim of the session is to evaluate the effectiveness of the teaching method
- Focus group discussion
The evaluation is conducted in each stage. Interactive sessions with discussion and feed back are used all over the process. The feed back from the people who received study classes are taken. The questionnaire is helpful in understanding the individual feed back. It is further helpful to understand how far the inputs are capable of enhancing the knowledge of the focus group. The stigma and the attitudinal changes can be measured through the questionnaire.
The teaching plan has focused on the problems of lack of orientation towards the breast cancer and the self breast examination among African American women. The issue is addressed with the help of providing knowledge about the breast cancer and self breast examination. The Teaching process has also helped the focus group to learn effective skills for self breast examination.
Breast self exam. (2010). E medicine Health. Web.
Breast self examination. (n.d.). American Cancer Association: Guidelines for Breast Cancer Detection. 2010. Web.
Breast self examination. (n.d.). Rashmi Nursing Home. 2010, Web.
Early detection saves lives. (2010). National Breast Cancer Foundation Inc. Web.
The five steps of a breast self exam. (2009). Breast Cancer. Org. Web.
Understanding breast cancer. (2008). Breast Cancer. Org. Web.