“The Theory of Transcultural Care” and “Philosophy and Theory of Transpersonal Care” by Watson and Sitzman

Subject: Nursing
Pages: 6
Words: 1398
Reading time:
5 min
Study level: College


Currently, many people choose nursing as a profession because it is one of the most vital vocations worldwide. Many graduates are inspired by the most virtuous intentions to become a nurse, while compassion remains the main driver of the field. This occurs due to the fact that caring for patients is a primary goal of medicine. Medical caretakers are the most confided in social insurance experts. Nurses are instructors, advocates, parental figures, and basic masterminds. They accomplish such an amount of energy which is more than care for people; their ability to nurture kindness and cure people has changed lives.

Case Study One

The theory of Transcultural Care or Madeleine Leininger’s Cultural Care technique includes information and comprehension of various societies regarding nursing practices and their health, values, and belief systems. Researchers state that such an approach aims to provide meaningful care and treatment to the patient concerning their cultural background (McFarland & Wehbe-Alamah, 2019). It centers on how various societies have various practices identified with well-being and sickness and multiple qualities, convictions, and practices.

The cultural perspective of care flows into information about people, families, gatherings, networks, and institutions in various well-being systems. This information gives a clear social implication and the language on the mind and prosperity. The next focus is on non-exclusive or public frameworks, peer review frameworks, and nursing care. The data about these structures include the qualities and specific main points of concern for each of them. This information allows a nurse to recognize similarities and contrasts or the fullness of social commitment and social consideration of diversity.

The case study presents a situation when Mrs. Franklin-Jones has recovered from infarction and is about to be discharged. Nurse Hernandez should consider the availability of family support, obtaining necessary medicine, the ability to use transport from hospital to home, her cognitive status, ability to eat appropriate food, and her activity level. The plan of care will be the following:

  1. Specify the date of discharge
  2. Identify discharge planning needs
  3. Establish the modes of complying with patient’s needs
  4. Set a list of medications
  5. Identify Mrs. Franklin Jones’s depositions to food

Leininger constructed the sunrise model in a reasonable request to show the relationship of ideas in her cultural hypothesis to diversity and inclusiveness. According to McFarland and Wehbe-Alamah (2019), Leininger’s methodology is mostly stingy in that the main ideas are remembered so that the strategy and its models can be applied in a wide range of circumstances. Although this is not the leading formulation, it can be adequately understood on the primary contact.

Leininger’s transcultural theory of care, or diversity and inclusiveness of social responsibility, centers around the idea of culture in providing patient care. This leads to the fact that the medical worker becomes sensitive to culture. Healthcare professionals should be aware of an alternative lifestyle that assumes they are responding to a patient’s needs with distinctive social qualities. According to McFarland and Wehbe-Alamah (2019), in contrast, and various speculations that are mostly centered around individuals, well-being, nature, and client consideration, Leininger’s methodology distinguishes anxiety as the center of patient care. However, this is an assumption that depends on social information. The understanding of consideration depends solely on the idea of culture. It can also be a notable cause of errors in clinical dynamics, such as misperceptions of results and misinterpretations of patient qualities associated with outcomes. The uniqueness of an individual should also be considered when fulfilling this hypothesis.

This theory does not pay any attention to the disease, symptoms, and outcomes. There may be a problem adapting or integrating the other’s culture, which may cause a culture shock on nurses. The study of culture does not mean that people can already relate to it; the research is different from real experience. Furthermore, the hypothesis has limited applicability which results in the inadequacy of many health strategies based on cultural frameworks.

Case Study Two

Jean Watson’s “Philosophy and Theory of Transpersonal Care” is about how medical workers caress their patients, and how this consideration is aimed toward better projects to improve well-being and health, prevent disease, and restore health. In today’s world, nursing seems to meet different technical requirements, with less attention to the needs of the person tied to the machine. According to Watson and Sitzman (2018), the disease can be cured, but the condition will remain because, without care, health is not achieved. Consideration is the embodiment of care and suggests responsiveness between the medical attendant and individuals; the medical attendant teams up with them.

Mindfulness and care can enable an individual to pick up control, become proficient, and add to well-being changes. As indicated by the hypothesis, care is related to well-being advancement, illness counteraction, nursing, and recuperation. It centers around well-being advancement just as the treatment of sicknesses. Watson and Sitzman (2018) assumed that care is key to nursing practice and advances well-being superior to basic clinical systems. The nursing model likewise guarantees that care can be shown and rehearsed by medical attendants. Thinking about the progressive development of patients, the attentive nurse recognizes the individuality of each of them and considers what they can become.

This theory has a comprehensive implementation and can be observed in the suggested case study. According to Watson and Sitzman (2018), love means empathy, kindness, and concern towards self and others. Therefore, one can notice that the nurse was incredibly caring towards Claude Jean-Baptiste by taking a particular interest in communicating with the patient. Notably, she has managed to use translation services, which encouraged the patient to share his culture’s traditions with the nursing staff.

The nurse can create a healing environment by providing loving-kindness, supporting and sustaining hope of self and others, developing and maintaining trustful, loving relationships. Moreover, it is necessary to support a patient’s positive and negative emotions and be open when discussing one’s well-being. The other important thing to do is to assist a patient’s basic needs with consciousness, which aligns with the holistic aspect of healing.

The Watson model has seven assumptions:

  1. caring must be decisively shown and polished in relational connections;
  2. care comprises of components that add as per the general inclination of individual human needs;
  3. paramount consideration advances well-being and individual or family development;
  4. caring reactions acknowledge the patient as they are currently, just as they may turn into;
  5. a mindful domain offers a possible turn of events, permitting the patient to pick the best activity for themselves at a given time;
  6. the study of care supplements is complementary to the study of treatment;
  7. nursing rehearses are central to understanding consideration.

While some consider Watson’s hypothesis unpredictable, many people think that it is straightforward. This model tracks and improves practice because it can procure social security providers with a full piece of training and can ensure the patient has comprehensive care. Watson considered using non-specific, confusing, fluid, and developmental language to skillfully convey her ideas, such as care-love and its elements. Difficultly, unique and simple designs such as care-love try to be rehearsed, but rehearsing and meeting these ideas encourages a more visible understanding. Besides, some researchers state that the hypothesis is coherent in that the correction components depend on broad suspicions that give a reference structure (Sitzman & Watson, 2018). Disciplinary components are consistently extracted from assumptions and identified with the chain of command of needs. The Watson hypothesis is best understood as an ethical and philosophical premise for nursing.

The first limitation of Watson’s theory is the lack of relevance to modern patient care. Because of the severity of the disease and nurses’ attitude to patients, following Watson’s argument does not seem practical. The Watson model continually focuses on the “spirit” and does not focus on the individual’s physical entities. The theory will be difficult to practice for nurses who focus on the disease’s physical aspects and treatment because it centers on caring for a person rather than the therapeutic nature of care.

In conclusion, it seems reasonable to state that both theories are widely implemented in nursing practice worldwide. Both approaches highlight care as the most critical aspect of nursing. The main peculiarity of both theories is that they can be applied to a variety of clinical settings. However, Leininger’s method pays more attention to the cultural background, while Watson claims only loving care centers as a primary element of healing.


McFarland, M. R., & Wehbe-Alamah, H. B. (2019). Leininger’s theory of culture care diversity and universality: An overview with a historical retrospective and a view toward the future. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 30(6), 540–557.

Sitzman, K., & Watson, J. (2018). Caring science, mindful practice: Implementing Watson’s human caring theory. Springer.