A qualitative study includes customer questionnaires as well as surveys, which help an institution to enhance an improvement in their services as well as product (Miller, 2009). A quantitative study assists them to make decisions that, in nature, are informative. It is all about gathering opinions from individuals in a carefully structured manner to ensure that, facts as well as statistics are produced and as such, they act as a guide. For a researcher to achieve statistical results that have an element of reliability, then it is essential that survey on people is done. This survey should include a large number of participants. It is also important to ensure that the participants represents a sample of the target group (Miller, 2009).
On the other hand, a qualitative research involves exploration of issues giving answers to questions as well as understanding of certain phenomena. A qualitative research seeks to answer ‘why’ of the topic (Miller, 2009). This is done through a thorough analysis of the information, which is unstructured. It incorporates interviews, survey responses that are open ended, the electronic media as well as forms of feedback. As compared to a quantitative research domain, a qualitative research does not entirely depend on the numbers or statistics. Such a research assists the readers to develop an insight in regards to the attitudes of the people, concerns, system of values, and lifestyles (Hunter, 2004). It is regularly utilized to pass information on decisions of the business, research, communication or even formation of policy. The underpinnings of this kind of research are that the information that has been unstructured can be sometimes be in a mess and tend to take time when making use of manual methods. As such, it is a taxing task to find themes as well as extraction of meanings when an individual is faced by a large amount of materials (Hunter, 2004).
Summary of Qualitative and Quantitative Studies
The aim of this paper is to provide a critique of two research articles, The experience of lying in dementia care: A qualitative study. Nursing Ethics, and, Measuring symptoms of depression: Comparing the Cornell scale for depression in dementia and the patient Health Questioner-9-Observation version, which represents the Qualitative and quantitative respectively.
In the Qualitative research, the researcher aims at looking at what the care providers do in regards to the persons with Dementia (Park, 2012). On the other hand, the quantitative research aims at extending the data on psychometric on the PHQ-9-OV in a long term care resident’s sample done by making a comparison with CSDD. The researcher makes use of both null and alternative hypothesis to ensure that all the principles established under the topic of study are addressed (Park, 2012). Based on the purposes of the qualitative survey, the researcher ensures that the conflicting issues in the topic of study are comprehensively addressed using relevant and applicable research methods. By using the study-telling technique, the researcher ensures that the ideologies and views of patients are incorporated into the study to eliminate cases of bias and imbalance (Park, 2012).
The purpose of the study is reflected in the research methodology through the application of relevant research tools, for example the post intervention, which also incorporates story-telling technique. The researcher ensures that all the issues in contention are comprehensively addressed with aims of ensuring that both alternative and null hypotheses were addressed (Pergert & Lützén, 2012). By posing the question on whether care providers contribute to the welfare of patients with Dementia, the researcher provides a broader field of study. The purpose of the study is broad enough to allow for testing of the alternative hypothesis, based on the spread of the sickness (Pergert & Lützén, 2012).
The methodology captures on the different possibilities that can be derived from the patients and also the care providers on their contribution towards eliminating the spread of Dementia (Woods, 2012). Through the interviews and other oral collection methods, the researcher ensures that all the implications and barriers towards addressing the spread of dementia are identified (Pergert & Lützén, 2012). The research is therefore well established based on the possible implications and challenges by the researcher collecting first-hand information from relevant sources. On the biasness and imbalance of the research process, the researcher ensures that there is credibility by balancing the inclusion and exclusion criteria to incorporate only the affected persons (Pergert & Lützén, 2012).
In the quantitative research, the author incorporates two different test methods to ensure that the aims are realized. In the research, the author ensures that there are different methods to address the purpose of the study. The researcher ensures that there is a comprehensive and diverse approach to the study by using different age-groups to conduct the study (Solum, Maluwa & Severinsson, 2012).
However, the purpose of the study by Lorraine J. Phillips revealed that the study was done comparing Patient Health Questionnaire-9-Observation Version with the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in long care resident’s sample (Solum, Maluwa & Severinsson, 2012).
The method use to collect data in the quantitative research used a post intervention in an experiment, which was quasi and involved story telling study (Nordenfelt, 2009). Data was collected across six communities. In the qualitative study, the data was collected employing numerous methods since it involved a number of practitioners across five care facilities (Dauwerse, Dam & Abma, 2012). Both the designs employed by the researcher were adequate and as such, there was clear explanation of procedures used to gather data. The researcher of the qualitative research did not describe the instruments he used in a detailed way (Dauwerse, Dam & Abma, 2012).
In the qualitative study, there was an adequate expression of the sample. The authors made a clear explanation of the situation and review of the techniques used in the studies was reviewed (Krishnamoorthy, Prince & Cummings, 2010). This means that the researcher evaluates all possible possibilities and implications of the study. In addition, the researcher ensures that the methodology is compliant with the research aims and objectives. The ethical implications are also addressed in the research by considering whether the interviewees and patients would be affected by the research questions (Baer & Blais, 2003). In addition, the researcher makes considerations on whether there would be breach of privacy from the information provided in the research. These ethical considerations makes to possible to collect uncompromised information from the sources (Krishnamoorthy, Prince & Cummings, 2010).
In both qualitative and quantitative research, the researchers have managed to incorporate different techniques and tools that have managed to eliminate biasness and imbalance. In addition, the researchers have ensured that there is a collective and diverse formula used in the collection of the research materials (Capezuti, Siegler, & Mezey, 2007). Although there are some concerns over the correctness of the information, the researchers are adamant in their quest to realize their objectives. The major concern is in the provision of the relevant questions to the interviewees as well as collecting first-hand information to ensure that the information is correct and justified (Capezuti, Siegler & Mezey, 2007).
According to the findings of the Qualitative research, in residential aged care facilities, the providers of the service lie to dementia patients. From the research, the researcher was in a position of identifying the challenges in the treatment of dementia patients (Parks, 2003). This means that the objectives of the research were realized through the incorporation of relevant and adequate research tools. By identifying the errors within the care providers, the research managed to address a longstanding problem within the health sector as a whole (Parks, 2003).
Support for the Critique
The reason for justifying the results and the research techniques is based on the researchers’ approach and means of execution. From the research purposes to the methodology and the results, the researchers manage to convince the reader that the entire approach is justifiable, unbiased and ethically compliant (Binstock, Post & Whitehouse, 2002). From the purpose of the study, the qualitative researcher develops a convincing reason for addressing the said topic. Tuckett (2011) makes an allegation, which forms as the basis for his research. In the title of his article, he claims that there are cases of lying from dementia care providers. He then formulates a formula to find out whether the allegations are true or false (Biernacki, 2007).
In the quantitative research, the findings are that, none of the measures employed had a significant relation with diagnosis of depression. Also, none of the method had a use of antidepressant agency (Sugarman, 2000). The researcher further found that there was adequate reliability as demonstrated by both measures. In both studies, these findings had an objectivity report. However, in the quantitative reports, there was demonstrated some errors. At a certain point, the researcher made a reference to an increased PHQ-9-OV item and yet, in the same study, he mentions that there was no gain in PHQ-9-OV that was significant (Sugarman, 2000). The tables in the quantitative research are designed in superb manner and as such, it tends to stand alone. In both the quantitative and the qualitative studies, the narratives were done clearly and as such, it too could stand alone. From a personal point of view, the results appear to be correct (Binstock, Post & Whitehouse, 2002).
This approach makes the research to be factual and precise. In addition, he develops a broader way of addressing the same. He first develops a framework from which to test the credibility of his assertions. Through justifiable and unbiased research methods, he comes into a conclusion that makes his allegations true (Biernacki, 2007). This means that he starts with an unjustified claim, and later proves, through research, that his claims are true. The same happens to Phillips (2012) who develops different approaches to a claim and applies two research methods to test the best for the study. The quantitative approach makes use of statistical data that he later uses to test his hypothesis. The researcher makes sure that both tools are based on ethical standards to prevent cases of biasness and imbalance in the research findings (Rockwood & Gauthier 2006).
Relevance of the Studies to New Zealand’s Health Sector
Both studies are relevant when applied to the current health status of New Zealand. It is estimated that dementia cases will be approximately 150,000 by the year 2050. In addition, New Zealand health officials claim that half of these individuals may also suffer from depression (Rockwood & Gauthier, 2006). The researchers therefore help in identifying why these cases may be on the rise. By studying the barriers to treatment and possible reasons of spread, the researchers contribute to the identification of challenges and implications to treatment of dementia and depression (Hughes, 2011).
In the qualitative survey, the researchers manage to identify the problems within care providers. They identify that the care providers lie to the dementia patients about their health, and this makes it worse for the patients seeking medical assistance (Hudson & Moore, 2009). The identification of these challenges makes it certain there is need for improvement within the health sector. Unless the health workers are trained and cautioned against lying against the dementia patients, the spread of the same would not cease (Innes & McCabe, 2007). This also shows that there is need for a nationwide campaign against the causes and sources of the two fast-spreading diseases. Dementia and depression will soon be a menace in New Zealand if there will not be an urgent intervention from the government (Innes & McCabe, 2007).
The two researches are therefore significant in trying to identify the possible causes of both dementia and depression (Hughes & Baldwin, 2006). In addition, they have managed to identify why the two diseases will continue to spread unless the government and other health agencies take control. Having incompetent health workers, who lie to the patients about their health status, is one of the threatening factors towards the spread of the two diseases. The two researches are very significant to the Health sector of New Zealand as the two diseases pose a major threat to the people of New Zealand. By reading these researches, the prevailing situation will definitely take a positive turn and hence, the diseases will be contained (Hudson & Moore, 2009).
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