Aspects of Nursing Theories and Models

Subject: Nursing
Pages: 5
Words: 1359
Reading time:
5 min
Study level: Master


Medicine and healthcare provision are developing more and more rapidly every year. This leads to the use of various frameworks, models, and theories of nursing in the practice of medical specialists. They help to optimize the work and make it more efficient. This work aims to examine these three aspects of the healthcare sector and determine what contribution they make to the practice of a family nurse practitioner.

The first aspect that needs to be considered is the conceptual basis of nursing. It implies a set of ideas that can be used within a broader theoretical framework. Theoretical knowledge helps to improve the network practice significantly. This is because the understanding of the knowledge base in the field of medicine, which forms and defines the practice of nurses, has a distinctive value.

Theories of nursing help to correctly form and define the scheme of nursing care and provide a basis for clinical decision-making. Even though nursing models, theories, and frameworks have been around for a long time, they still have a unique value in public health and modern hospitals (Smith, 2019). Theories provide the basis for this profession. As the field of nursing continues to evolve, theories play a crucial role in structuring patient care.

Grand Nursing Theory

For a more in-depth study, this work chose the Dorothea Orem nursing theory grant, which has the name self-care deficit theory. This theory aligns with my nursing philosophy as its center is the individual’s ability to perform self-care. This is because I believe that people taking care of themselves is an essential part of maintaining their quality of life. It is such indicators as, for example, the lifestyle that form the resistance of the human body to various diseases, except those that are transmitted genetically.

The Self-Care theory is a complex theory that consists of several essential aspects. Thus, it includes such concepts as the theory of self-care, the self-care deficit theory, and the theory of nursing systems. Hence, the main task of a medical specialist, in this case, is to help people by providing knowledge about how to properly manage their bodies and improve functions independently without involving doctors (Ali, 2018). People and their desire and ability to take care of themselves and maintain well-being are put in the first place. The primary condition of this grand theory is the inability of individuals to perform certain functions supporting the body (Gligor & Domnariu, 2020). This includes therapeutic procedures for maintaining life and health, recovering from illness or injury, or overcoming their consequences. In the case of minors, these conditions are the inability of guardians and parents to provide the necessary volume and quality of medical care, which is therapeutic. Thus, for my practice, this theory is valuable because I consider it essential to take independent care of organisms to maintain health.

The creator of Dorothea Orem identified several assumptions within the framework of her theory. Firstly, it is believed that to stay alive, people constantly communicate and interact with each other. Moreover, the human right to act consciously is used to determine needs and make necessary decisions. Thirdly, individuals experience deprivation in the form of actions to take care of themselves, and these functions are associated with the performance of life-supporting actions. When people transfer knowledge about ways and means of taking care of themselves and others, the human will manifest itself. Groups of people with structured relationships form tasks and assign responsibilities for providing medical care to group members.

There are basic concepts of the theory of scarcity, and one of them is care. It includes the provision of nursing services to care for people to improve their well-being and meet basic needs. Another concept is the people directly targeted by the provision of services. Further, the value is provided by the environment, which has its characteristics. In the case of medical services, it can be family, culture, and community. Health is also the central concept of the theory under study. It is a condition that encompasses the condition of people, and their ability to take care and think about themselves, symbolize experiences, and communicate with others.

Theoretical Model

The theoretical model that can have effectiveness and productivity in the practice of the family practitioner is the functional care model. It was created based on the efficiency model, which implies the completion of several tasks in a short period (Beidelschies et al., 2019). In this way, the functional model focuses on the proper performance of the specific tasks assigned to the medical specialist. Instead of one nurse performing multiple functions, several nurses are given one or two tasks. An example would be the appointment of one employee to perform the functions of collecting tests from patients. In the same way, the task of conducting diagnostic tests of patients and the subsequent diagnosis following the results can be assigned to another medical department. The basic idea of functional nursing is that nurses are assigned tasks, not patients.

Hence, some advantages and disadvantages of this theoretical model can be highlighted. Among the positive characteristics is the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of this approach since fewer personnel perform a more significant number of actions. In addition, this factor affects the faster execution of various processes. Among the disadvantages of the functional theoretical model is a fragmented approach. In addition, there may be difficulties with communication between nurses. Thus, changes in the patient’s condition and changes in the doctor’s prescriptions may be lost or misunderstood. This circumstance may cause problems with the safety and quality of medical care. Moreover, there may be cases of abuse of authority by some nurses who will perform more tasks than necessary, which can also cause problems with the provision of health services.

Middle Range Theory

Middle-range nursing theories tend to have a more specific focus, which makes a valuable contribution to the practice of the medical profession. They help to form a connection between the theoretical postulates of nursing and practice (Smith & Liehr, 2018). What also distinguishes this type of theory is that they are less abstract and verifiable through testing, which makes them practical. The theory of quality nursing care focuses on the degree of satisfaction of physical, psychosocial, and other needs of patients in care. Satisfaction with these requests is called therapeutic effectiveness. It is caused by the fact that therapy has a positive effect on the recovery of patients.

The basis of the quality of nursing care includes several interrelated concepts of value, charity, prudence, and justice. The first aspect implies what people internally want to receive or have. Moreover, it implies utility or importance to society and equity and equal return in the form of services provided. Charity is also a fundamental aspect of this theory and it consists in providing positive emotions, such as kindness, and promoting well-being. In addition, it includes a severe attitude to setting goals and the ability to use all possible resources to achieve them. The last aspect, equity, includes the equal distribution and use of available resources to individual contributions to them. In addition, it also concerns equality in solving problems of injustice by finding the average value between profit and loss. This model can become valuable in my family nurse practitioner practice as it helps to distribute the main aspects of the work clearly and that is why it was chosen for this scientific paper. Thus, it helps to treat all patients patiently while taking into account charity and personal and human values.


Therefore, this work dealt with the consideration of theories and models of a medical nurse. Hence, as a grand theory, self-care theory, functional model, and quality of nursing care were analyzed. All of them are important for the proper organization of the provision of health services and setting goals in the work of the medical department. The organization of medical workers and the order of care are the most critical factors determining the results of the treatment of patients in medical institutions. The choice of these theories and models is justified by the high importance of their application in medical practice to increase the quality of life and health of society.


Ali, B. H. I. (2018). Application of Orem self care deficit theory on psychiatric patient. Annals of Nursing and Practice, 5(1), 1-3.

Beidelschies, M., Alejandro-Rodriguez, M., Ji, X., Lapin, B., Hanaway, P., & Rothberg, M. B. (2019). Association of the functional medicine model of care with patient-reported health-related quality-of-life outcomes. JAMA Network Open, 2(10), e1914017-e1914017. Web.

Gligor, L., & Domnariu, C. D. (2020). Patient care approach using nursing theories-comparative analysis of Orem’s self-care deficit theory and Henderson’s model. Acta Medica Transilvanica, 25(2), 11-14. Web.

Smith, M. C. (2019). Nursing theories and nursing practice. FA Davis.

Smith, M. J., & Liehr, P. R. (2018). Middle range theory for nursing. Springer Publishing Company.