Cardiovascular Physiology and Function

Introduction

The cardiovascular system is a collection of organs in charge of the movement of blood in the body. This system is made up of the heart as well as an arrangement of veins, arteries, and capillaries. In this paper, I look at the anatomy and physiology of some components of the cardiovascular system.

The Aorta

The aorta is a large blood vessel of approximately 70cm length and 3.5cm diameter (Rogers, 2010). It begins from the left ventricle and terminates into the iliac arteries. The aorta supplies blood rich in oxygen to the whole body.

Mitral Valve

The mitral valve is often referred to as the bicuspid valve since it possesses two flaps (cusps). During the left ventricular diastole, it permits blood flow out of the left atrium into the left ventricle. The mitral valve contains a ring called the mitral annulus, which alters its shape to prevent the backflow of blood (Rogers, 2010).

The Chordae Tendinae

These are muscular strings affixed to the cusps of the heart on the lower chamber (Aaronson, Ward & Connolly, 2012). These muscular strings begin from a tiny mass of muscle tissue known as the papillary muscles. The chordae tendinae stop the cusps from relapsing into the atrium space following their closure.

Epicardium

This is the outermost stratum of the wall of the heart composed of a thin connective tissue referred to as the epithelium (Rogers, 2010). The term epicardium is often used to mean the visceral layer of the pericardium. It assists in the lubrication and protection of the outer part of the heart.

Ventricles

The ventricles are thick and strong chambers of the heart that pump out blood to the rest of the body (Rogers, 2010). The two ventricles are joined to arteries that facilitate this transportation. The left and right ventricles are divided by the interventricular septum.

Conclusion

All the components of the cardiovascular system are vital for the effective flow of blood. No matter how small, each part plays its roles effectively for optimum health.

References

Aaronson, I. P., Ward, J. & Connolly M. J. (2012). The cardiovascular system at a glance. USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Rogers, K. (2010). The Cardiovascular system. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group.