Cause and Consequences of a Nutrition-Related Polymorphism

Nutrition polymorphism definition

According to the free dictionary, polymorphism is “discontinuous genetic variation that results in the occurrence of several different forms or types of individuals among the members of a single species” (the free dictionary, 2008). An instance of polymorphism is the genetic differences in members that exist in the same species for example separation of male and female sexes and also differences in blood type in human beings. Polymorphism that recurs over and over several generations gets to be retained since no particular form is advantageous over the other.

Genotype B12: It caused by a genotype called methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase it affects plasma homocysteine in patients.

Effects of B12 polymorphism

Vitamin B12 is considered to be safe and its not toxic there are no major risky side effects seen concerning this vitamin for this reason it is tolerable, most of the antibiotic on gastrointestinal bacteria are not able to have significant effects concerning vitamin B12. when you take it to the maximum daily you are unlikely to have any side effects in health vitamin B12 deficiency comes about when you a re not able to properly use the said vitamin. Side effects don’t come about when B12 supplements are given orally or when you take it by injection this type of ingestion has side effects like: Mild diarrhea, Anxiety and fear attack, Heart irregular beating, Lack of sleep, Difficulty in breathing, Paining chest, Rashes on the skin, You feel like scratching your skin, Hives. (Bodybuilding for you.com, 2006).

It’s believed by professionals that these effects come about due to preservatives that are linked to injection formula. To be safe it is best to take B12 orally. People who have allergy experience the side effects. if you re affected by B12 supplementation, its therefore advisable to eat food rich in natural vitamin B12 if your optic nerve wastes away due to lebers disease which is genetic.(unarchived articles, 2008). One should avoid it when taking vitamin B12 through the mouth, you may quicken atrophy of the optic nerve which leads to the rapid failure of the central vision. Another insignificant risk, but people who have undergone heart surgery and acquired coronary tents have the higher probability of their artery reducing in size, therefore should take caution. Expectant mothers and breast feeding mothers can take these vitamins orally without fear as long as they don’t exceed the amount prescribed on a daily basis (John Coleman, 2008).

Some of the functions of the MTHFR are the following: the gene gives commands which help in making an enzyme called methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. (Genetics Home Reference, 2008). It manufactures amino acids which are building blocks of proteins. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is vital in a chemical reaction that involves forms of the vitamin folate which can also be referred to as folic acid or vitamin B9. This enzyme usually changes 5, 10- methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. The reaction is needed for the multistep process that transforms the amino acid homocysteine to a different kind of amino acid, methionine. Our bodies use methionine to manufacture proteins alongside with other compounds that are vital.

Mutations that occur in MTHFR gene bring about homocystinuria. So far 24 mutations in the MTHFR gene have been identified in human beings who have homocystinuria. Majority of these mutations convert single amino acids in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase these changes disrupt the function of the enzyme and can activate it permanently. Without MTHFR, the changing of homocysteine to methionine can’t be achieved. This result into the building up of homocysteine in the bloodstream and methionine is lost. Other disorders such as birth defects and cardiovascular disease are increased as a result of a specific version of MTHFR. Increased level of homocysteine in blood come about as a result of thermolabile, a condition which comes about as a result of transformation of MTHFR gene which produces a kind of MTHFR that has reduced activity at higher temperatures.

Snps appear in the direction of expounding on the differences in responding to food mechanism. scientists have found out that more than 3 million locations are single base DNA variation or snps are found in man and therefore are likely sites to establish differences the gene product quality or quantity is not always affected by the snps time after time of studying the multiple snps give special merit in explaining the biological answer to either food components or drugs since multiple genes have a higher probability of being involved in influencing physiological processes and their final control on a particular individual phenotype. SNPs are several in a persons hormone which deals with growth known as secretagogue receptor (GHSR receptor orghrelin receptor) which is vital in controlling of the taking in of food and energy homeostasis (Elaine Trujillo, Cindy Davis, John Milner, 2006).

Disease advancement danger can be changed by diet and dietary components. The mechanisms include; food mechanism which acts on the person’s genome, these happen in a direct way or indirectly. This changes the way genes and gene products articulate. Its also noted that several mechanisms of a diet can change genetic and epigenetic actions so leading to the health being predisposed.

Epigenetic actions are capable of being modified by food components that are biologically active. This is one more significant factor in knowing the gene whose role is “selectively activated” a number of proteins which regulates are as follows: “DNA methyltransferases, methyl-cystocine guanine dinucleotide binding proteins ,histone-modifyingenzymes,chromatin remodeling factors, and their multimolecular complexes” take part in the final epigenetic process ( Elaine Trujillo, Cindy Davis, John Milner, 2006).

Diet is one of the ecological factors that have power over “biological processes and phenotype”, some genetic polymorphism able to move the equilibrium of energy taken in and energy given out and so having power over bioenergetics and overweight.

Implications of medical nutrition therapy

Nutrition planning in time may help to the avoid the start, encouragement and development of pathways that may bring about the lethal phenotype. According to Elaine, Cindy and John, not everybody can react in a positive way towards diet and dietary components. The incorporation of food and genomics may bring about the improved utilization of individual diets to avoid the starting of a disease and to optimize and preserve the health of people. For nutritional preemption approaches to succeed, they will be combined with the knowledge of “identifying and validating nutrigenetic ,nutritional epigenetic , proteomic and metabolomic biomarkers to settle on cause, outcome, and vulnerability to illness” ( Elaine Trujillo, Cindy Davis, John Milner, 2006).

References

  1. Bodybuildingforyou.com. Vitamin B12 Cobalamin Benefits and Side Effects. 2006.
  2. Elaine Trujillo, Cindy Davis, John Milner. Nutrigenomics, Proteomics, Metabolomics, and the Practice of Dietetics. Journal of the American Dietetic Association.  2006.
  3. Genetics Home Reference. Genetics Disorders A-Z. 2008.
  4. The Free Dictionary. Polymorphism, 2008. Web.
  5. Unarchived articles, 2008. Vitamin B12.
  6. Vegan Society. What every vegan should know about vitamin B12. 2008.