Diabetes mellitus complications develop slowly; they can cause disability and even death. Some of these complications are:
- Heart and blood vessel disease: Diabetes radically increases the dangers of some cardiovascular illnesses, such as coronary artery sickness with pain in the chest, stroke, heart attack, atherosclerosis, and high blood pressure.
- Nerve damage (neuropathy): Lots of sugar can harm the tiny blood vessel capillaries that nurture a person’s nerves, particularly in the legs.
- Kidney damage (nephropathy): Kidneys have very many tiny clusters of blood vessels that filter unwanted materials from the blood. Diabetes can harm this fragile filtering system.
- Foot damage: Feet nerve damage or poor flow of blood to the feet increases the danger of different foot problems.
- Eye damage: Diabetes can harm the retina’s blood vessels of the retina thus causing blindness.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology
Diabetes: Hyperglycemia, which is described as:
- oral glucose tolerance test above 200 mg/dl
- fasting plasma glucose above 126 mg/dl
Pre-Diabetes is described as:
- impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) of 140-199 mg/dl
- impaired fasting glucose (IFG) of 100-125 mg/dl
Diabetes is a metabolic illness typified by irregular fuel metabolism, which particularly results in dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia because of defects in secretion of insulin secretion and action of insulin or even both. It is a severe chronic illness with no cure, and it is linked with notable mortality and morbidity, both chronic and acute. Acute complications are a result of serious hyperglycemia. On the other hand, chronic complications are typified by harm, dysfunction, and ultimate failure of somebody’s organs, particularly kidneys, eyes, brain, nerves, and heart. Damage to vascular is the common denominator.