Criteria for Evaluation of Paper: Evaluating a Guideline

Introduction

Despite the high developments attained in the 21st century, man is not yet relieved from deadly health complications. Medical and nursing researchers have indicated that the range of human diseases is magnifying day after day. This is closely associated with changing lifestyles. Most of the diseases and medical complications affecting human beings in recent days are associated with lifestyle change. In particular, heart health needs have been identified as the most wanting in reference to health care improvement. Research has shown that heart health needs require a lot of improvements following the high number of people who are presently affected. Statistics established by medical researchers have shown that the cardiovascular health of nearly all nations is far from ideal. The rise of chronic heart failure in recent days has also called upon the adoption of efficient management strategies. This research paper will focus on evaluation and elaborate discussion on a guideline on the management of congestive heart failure (CHF).

Nursing studies have been steadfast in providing sufficient information addressing the issue of congestive heart failure. The causes, symptoms, treatment, and management procedures have been established. It has been worrying to note that over 2% of adults in developed nations have been reported to suffer from the disease. Fortunately, the development of the guideline on management of chronic heart failure by the National Collaborating Center for Chronic and Acute conditions has been an efficient intervention to CHF (Fogel and Woods, 2008).

Background of guideline

The guideline on CHF management was established in August 2010 by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. This was based on abundant research on the nature of CHF whereby its causes, symptoms, and treatment measures were established. The rising number of people suffering from heart-related diseases has been the main force towards the development of the guideline. The US in particular has reported declining heart health among its population. The guideline is aimed at providing precise and effective knowledge on the management of CHF. Medical researchers in the US Department of Health & Human Service have expressed the need for efficient preventive, curative, and management strategies for CHF (Garad, 2007).

The need for the guideline

According to Nieswiadomy (2008), CHF is one of the leading causes of hospitalization of patients who are above 65 years old. With this in mind, the guideline on the management of CHF stands to be very useful in addressing the situation. Many patients have been identified to be losing their lives following the extent of the disease thus the need for proper management approaches. Since CHF is a progressive disease, the adoption of an effective management strategy will definitely relieve society from the effects of the disease. The CHF guideline provides all necessary knowledge and information to nursing practitioners as well as members of society concerning what to do in addressing CHF patients. Highlights on dietary practices, exercise, and medical treatment among other practices have been provided (Nieswiadomy, 2008).

The changing lifestyles in the 21st century have led to an increase in the prevalence of the disease. In particular, the aged are the most affected by CHF thus demonstrating every need to save the situation. As observed by Fogel and Woods (2008) most CHF patients are not compliant with their care thus worsening the situation. In response to this situation, there has been every need to educate CHF patients as well as the nursing practitioners on healthy lifestyles, dietary practices, and behavior as well as the significance of taking daily medication. CHF has been categorized as one of the cardiovascular diseases which need immediate readdress. The American Heart Association has in this case been committed to ensuring improvement of health from cardiovascular disease by over 20% and reducing deaths by over 20% in the year 2020. In this regard, the need for the guideline on management of CHF is demonstrated whereby people need to be more educated (Fogel and Woods, 2008).

Relevance of the guideline to nursing practice

The guideline on the management of CHF has attracted praises from all stakeholders in the nursing and health sector. The guideline is very explicit and simple for use thus making it applicable to a wide population of users. The guideline offers an elaborate guide on the management of CHF in all phases from primary to palliative care. Since the prevalence of CHF has been in a rapid increase, the establishment of the guideline stands to be a worthwhile tool in addressing the situation. It is worth noting that there has been a wide gap in patient knowledge on the management of the disease Most of the patients suffering from CHF have been identified to have little or no knowledge on the management of the disease (Baliga et al, 2008).

The guideline on the management of CHF is very relevant in the sense that it addresses all aspects of managing the disease. For instance, the issues of lifestyle, medication, and dietary behaviors have been adequately addressed in the guideline. The guideline has offered a discussion on the lifestyle changes which should be undertaken by CHF patients. On the other hand, patients are also called upon to adhere to daily medication as dictated by the physician (McLaughlin and Bulla, 2010).

In relation to the insights offered by the guideline, the ideas offered by Katharine Kolcaba in her comfort theory have been demonstrated. The guideline has not been established singly but on a strong theoretical background. All ideas put forward in the guideline are theoretically authentic and relevant to the nursing practice. As observed by Ward and Witham (2009) the guideline on the management of CHF borrows strongly on the comfort theory. In this case, the guideline seeks to offer effective intervention to CHF patients by improving their situation. All phases and measures offered by the guideline are aimed at increasing the comfort of CHF patients. Ward and Witham (2009) indicated that the guideline stands to be worthwhile in the sense that it efficiently addresses the issue of comfort. The states in which a patient’s comfort can be attained including the physical, sociocultural, and psychospiritual as well as environmental have been clearly elaborated in the guideline (Ward and Witham, 2009).

Based on the comfort theory, nursing practitioners are fed with vital knowledge on the relief of a patient’s pain. For instance, nurses get knowledge on how to relieve a patient from postoperative pain through the provision of suitable prescriptions. In the case of the guideline, nurses get relevant insights on the medical interventions to adopt in the management of CHF. It is also worth noting that the guideline educates nurses as well as patients on how to attain comfort by adopting ways of reducing anxiety. The guideline explains how patients can reduce anxiety by socializing with their friends and relatives. This is a special strategy in enhancing the patient’s comfort thus justifying the worth of the guideline to nursing practice (Ward and Witham, 2009).

In relation to the theoretical background of the guideline, the patients are empowered to engage in healthy activities thus boosting their wellbeing. The guideline provides nurses with vital knowledge on how to facilitate supportive environments for rehabilitation and recovery. For instance, the issues of smoking and alcoholism which enhance CHF have been sufficiently addressed. In this case, nurses are offered guidelines on how to help their patients to recover from these unhealthy habits and instead adopt healthy behaviors. The three categories of comfort which include, comfort intervention for control of pain, instilling hope, and plan for recovery are well elaborated in the guideline. These are in conjunction with the comfort theory whereby nurses are educated on how to ensure optimum comfort for their patients. Based on these insights, it is explicit that the guideline is very relevant to nursing practice since it equips nurses with knowledge on enhancing the comfort of their patients (Ward and Witham, 2009).

Evidence of literature search

The guideline on management of CHF has been established on a very rich background. A diverse body of knowledge on relevant nursing literature has been adopted in building the knowledge on the guideline. Since nursing is a wide topic, the literature search has been narrowed to the topic of congestive heart failure. In this topic, various kinds of literature on related topics like cardiac patients, cardiovascular diseases, chronic heart failure, and heart diseases have been adopted. By incorporating literature on these topics, sufficient information was established thus adequately addressing the topic. With this in mind, the guideline is rich in information from reliable literature thus standing to be the best tool for managing CHF (Alexander et al, 2006).

Research studies used

In order to arrive at adequate information for addressing all elements of CHF management, a diverse number of nursing research studies were used. These were primarily peer-reviewed sources that ensured the provision of highly authentic information. The selection of the resources was given special attention whereby articles addressing the management of CHF were prioritized. This was a deliberate move to ensure that the sources used are relevant in addressing the topic. Both public and medical libraries were adopted in the search for the literature. This was guided by the issue of accessibility and costs since online databases ensured ease of access to the sources. To maintain the high relevance of the materials adopted in the study, all materials used ranged from 1year to 10 years. By adopting reviewed journals on nursing research, there was no doubt on the level of authenticity of the information thus boosting the acceptability and applicability of the ideas (Baliga et al, 2008).

The various nursing research studies adopted in the literature review included the following

Nursing practices

Alexander, M. et al. (2006). Nursing Practice: Hospital and Home: The Adult. New York: Churchill Livingstone.

This journal article on nursing practice is a vital resource in the topic of the management of CHF. The article has provided overwhelming insights on nursing practices for the management of patients both at home and in hospitals. Nurses, as well as patient aides, are guided on the measures to take while helping CHF patients. The issues of behavior, exercise, and dietary procedures are highly addressed in this journal. The article has in this addressed both primary and palliative care to CHF patients (Alexander et al, 2006).

Fogel, C. and Woods, N. (2008). Quality of Care by Race and Gender for Congestive Heart Failure and Pneumonia. Medical Care, Vol 37(12), 1260-1269.

Fogel and Woods have demonstrated their expertise in nursing research whereby their article has been globally acknowledged for its insightful ideas. The article offers highlights of quality care that should be adopted in helping patients with CHF. The article is written in an elaborate manner thus making it useful to a wide number of people (Fogel and Woods, 2008).

Ward, C. and Witham, M. (2009). A Practical Guide to Heart Failure in Older People. European Journal of Heart Failure, Vol 7 (1), 411-417.

This journal is a vital resource on the topic of managing CHF. Unlike the other articles which have explicitly discussed the strategies for managing CHF, this article has offered a theoretical framework for addressing the disease. The comfort theory is in this case at the center stage of the discussion. This is very vital in offering nurses adequate knowledge on how to address patients’ conditions (Ward and Witham, 2009).

Management practices for CHF Patients

Garad, J. (2007). Health Science Literature review made easy. The matrix method (2nd Ed). Boston: Prentice-Hall.

The article by Garad has focused on management practices for CHF patients. This article is worthwhile and relevant in addressing the topic in the sense that it elaborates on efficient practices and behaviors for patients with CHF. Issues of proper diet, exercise, and avoidance of smoking, as well as alcohol, have been discussed (Garad, 2007).

Kazer, M. (2006). Nursing Research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol 2(1), 17-42.

Kazer has provided an in-depth discussion and analysis on the entire aspect of nursing research on CHF. In this article, the causes, symptoms, and treatment for CHF have been elaborated. The study has been narrowed on addressing the best management approaches for CHF. It is worth noting that behavioral issues concerning CHF patients have also been tackled whereby patients are required to adopt healthy diets, frequent exercise, and avoidance of alcohol. These ideas are important in nursing practice (Kazer, 2006).

Nieswiadomy, R.M. (2008). Foundations of nursing research (6th Ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

This book is an important resource in addressing the patient’s practices in relation to CHF management. It is developed on sufficient research on the entire topic of CHF among other heart health needs. In particular, this article is very relevant in building the literature on the management of CHF in the sense that it elaborates on the patient practices and behaviors (Nieswiadomy, 2008).

Causes and preventive measures of CHF

Baliga, R. et al. (2008). Management of Heart Failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol 43 (11), 2028-2035.

This article explains the causes as well as factors contributing to the development of CHF. The authors of the article have addressed all issues which in one way or the other contribute to CHF. The various stages of the disease and symptoms have been given a special focus in the article. Factors leading to hospitalization of CHF patients as well as the treatment approaches are fully tackled in the article thus making it a useful resource (Baliga et al, 2008).

McLaughlin, M. and Bulla, S. (2010). Real Stories of Nursing Research: The Quest for Magnet Recognition. British Medical Journal, Vol 11(6), 315-321.

McLaughlin and Bulla have done an in-depth exploration of the real issue of nursing research. They have provided an authentic explanation of what nurses should do in attending to CHF patients (McLaughlin and Bulla, 2010).

Significance of the study

The ideas retrieved from the literature review have a great correlation with the recommendations of the guideline on CHF management. All the articles have provided authentic insights on how patients and nurses should address cases of CHF. All the articles on nursing research have great support for the guideline in the sense that they seek to expound on what the guideline has recommended. It is worth noting that the guideline has been developed on literature from nursing research studies thus making it a product of the ideas in each of the articles. The core concepts of patient behaviors, dietary practices, exercise, adherence to medication, and avoidance of alcohol and smoking have been well explained in both the articles and the guidelines (Alexander et al, 2006).

Development of recommendations and Conclusion

In light of the explicit and authentic nature of the guideline on the management of CHF, the following recommendations should be adopted.

  1. Education of all CHF patients to adhere to their care through proper diet, exercise, avoidance of alcohol, adherence to medication, and avoidance of smoking.
  2. CHF patients should be educated to follow the guideline by changing their behavior, lifestyles, and adherence to physicians’ guidelines.
  3. Provision of education and information to people on causes and symptoms of CHF such as weakness, shortness of breath, and fatigue.
  4. Nurses should also be guided on adopting the ideas stipulated by the guideline.

The review of the nursing research studies has been of great significance in addressing the topic. The articles have in this case offered sufficient information for addressing all aspects of CHF management. It has been evident that the guideline has a rich background built on nursing research. This makes it authentic and efficient in intervening cases of CHF. The guideline as well as the literature review have exhausted the issue whereby nurses and CHF patients have every need to be happy. This is so because an elaborate approach to CHF management has been established. The theoretical background of the guideline as well as the literature review is also to be acknowledged. Based on this scenario, the guideline stands to be the most crucial resource in countering CHF.

The literature review, as well as the guideline, have however not exhausted the issue of CHF management. As observed in the discussion, all studies have focused on the treatment or management measures at the expense of other aspects of CHF. This has led to gaps in literature hence calling for future research on the topic. The areas of CHF management that call for further research include the causes as well as the potential factors leading to the development of CHF. In this regard, future researchers should concentrate on these aspects on the causes, preventive measures, and the potential factors contributing to the development of CHF.

References

Alexander, M. et al. (2006). Nursing Practice: Hospital and Home: The Adult. New York: Churchill Livingstone.

Baliga, R. et al. (2008). Management of Heart Failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol 43 (11), 2028-2035.

Fogel, C. and Woods, N. (2008). Quality of Care by Race and Gender for Congestive Heart Failure and Pneumonia. Medical Care, Vol 37(12), 1260-1269.

Garad, J. (2007). Health Science Literature review made easy. The matrix method (2nd Ed). Boston: Prentice Hall.

Kazer, M. (2006). Nursing Research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol 2(1), 17-42.

McLaughlin, M. and Bulla, S. (2010). Real Stories of Nursing Research: The Quest for Magnet Recognition. British Medical Journal, Vol 11(6), 315-321.

Nieswiadomy, R.M. (2008). Foundations of nursing research (6th Ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Ward, C. and Witham, M. (2009). A Practical Guide to Heart Failure in Older People. European Journal of Heart Failure, Vol 7 (1), 411-417.