Exercise Physiology and Health Factors in Training

Subject: Physiology
Pages: 7
Words: 1907
Reading time:
7 min
Study level: College

Energy pathways and exercises that utilize them

There are three major pathways for obtaining energy exploring both aerobic and anaerobic exercises. First of all, it is an ATP-PC system. One should realize the fact that the body needs a constant supply of ATP energy. Besides, for short and intense physical exercises the body uses ATP-PC. One of the main peculiarities of this system is its anaerobic character. In other words, all processes do not demand oxygen. Besides, ATP is created due to the breakdown of phosphocreatine that could be found in muscles. Intensive exercises like jumps or short distance runs could help to explore this source.

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Another pathway is the lactic acid system also, known as the anaerobic glycolysis system. It also produces energy for muscles. However, the needed energy is produced with the help of the glycogen breakdown. The given process starts during high-intensity muscle activity. Thus, one should keep in mind the fact that the accumulation of lactic acid that is obtained in the course of the reaction could cause a burning sensation in muscles. High-intensity exercises like a marathon or interval training could be used in terms of this pathway.

The last pathway for obtaining energy is an aerobic system which could be considered the most complex energy system that is used to provide muscles with the needed amount of ATP. It produces ATP, which is obtained from the breakdown of such elements as glucose, fatty acids, etc. However, oxygen must be present when the reaction occurs. Strength training could help to explore this very source.

These are the three main pathways to obtain the energy needed for a body. It is crucial to mind the fact that different types of physical exercises demand various sources of energy. For instance, in training for a marathon, it is essential to consider the lactic acid system functioning as it is responsible for the high-intensity activity and accumulation of lactic acid in muscles. In this regard, consideration of these peculiarities is crucial for future training endeavors as it contributes to the improved understanding of what sources of energy to use to attain the best results.

The fundamental movements of significant body segments

Six fundamental movements of main body segments could be considered crucial for the improved final results. These are:

  1. Flexion could be determined as the decrease or alteration of the angle between two body segments. It is simple and, at the same time, an essential movement that is crucial for the functioning of the body and different muscles. Such exercises as bicep curls or hamstring stretch could be used in terms of this movement.
  2. Extension could be determined as the process opposite to the previous one. It is the increase in the angle between two segments of the body. The given movement is one of the most frequent ones. There are such examples as leg extensions or arm extensions.
  3. Abduction is another kind of movement. It occurs when the body moves part away from the midline. Abduction could be considered a more complex movement. Shoulder raises are an exercise to work on it.
  4. Abduction is similar to the previous one, but a body segment moves toward the midline. In other words, it is opposite to the previous basic movement. One of the possible exercises to explore is legs crossing or putting together.
  5. Rotation could be observed when a body segment moves around a certain axis. Discus throw is an example of the exercise that could be considered in terms of this movement.
  6. Finally, circumduction is a movement of a part of a body in a circular direction. For instance, when a person waves his/her hands intensively.

Nevertheless, the main exercises incorporate all these aspects. For example, the one-arm swing could help to explore all basic movements. A person decreases and increases the angle between his/her arms when pushing the weight. At the same time, he/she also moves the body in different directions.

Altogether, a specialist should realize the fact that knowledge of these peculiarities will help him/her to create an efficient program and contribute to the improved final results as the usage of all fundamental movements within one exercise increases the efficiency of training significantly.

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Aerobic training and fat burning

Today, the idea of losing weight becomes central to people who like popular magazines and try to follow fashion. They engage in aerobic training as it is declared as the most efficient way to burn fat. This belief comes from the nature of aerobic training. The fact is that this sort of activity helps to burn more fat than anaerobic exercises. In such a way, it might seem that these magazines are right, and everyone should engage in this sort of physical exercise. However, one should mind the fact that it is not the only efficient way to burn fat. Moreover, it could be even useless in case a person does not have enough knowledge to increase the efficiency of his/her training sessions. Aerobic training increases the fat proportion and in such a way contributes to its better burning. In case a person is in a state of stress, it could hurt his/her health, and the results would be poor. In other words, aerobic exercises cause great stress to a person, and if he/she already experiences some problems or remains in a state of stress, this sort of training should be avoided.

Individuals who want to get rid of extra kilos should remember that interval training is a much better way to burn fat than aerobic exercises. First of all, it does not stress them out. Additionally, while alternating both aerobic and anaerobic kinds of activity, a person manages to increase the speed of different processes in his/her body and attain better results.

Altogether, it is possible to conclude that magazines do not lie; however, they also do not tell all facts. Aerobic training is efficient, but it is difficult and stressful. For this reason, some other ways to burn fat could be chosen by a person in case he/she suffers from a high level of stress, and the above-mentioned kind of physical exercises does not result in the expected outcomes.

Blood pressure and training program

Blood pressure is a vital factor that should be considered when designing a specific training program for a person. In case a person suffers from high blood pressure, it is strictly forbidden to perform intensive or longstanding physical activities, or it might cause serious damage to a person and even result in a heart attack. In this regard, the program should be created considering the alterations in the blood pressure and its current state.

For instance, these are two results of a blood pressure test.

  • 120/80 – my result
  • 145/90 -my friends result
  • 120 and 145 are systoles while 80 and 90 are diastoles.

Considering the unique importance of the given showing, there is a range of excellent, good, and poor showings. Therefore, 110 to 120 could be considered excellent, 120-130 fair, 130, and higher or lower than 100 are poor ranges. As for diastole, 70-80 are excellent, 90 is fair and lower than 50 or higher than 100 are poor.

These oscillations in blood pressure showings are preconditioned by lifestyle, food habits, and stress. For instance, as a would-be specialist in the sphere of physical activity, I perform different physical exercises and try to lead a healthy way of life. That is why my blood pressure is good. As for my friend, he smokes, eats unhealthy food, and suffers from a lack of physical activity. For this reason, his blood pressure is not very good. There are the first signs of hypertension. For this reason, physical exercises that combine moderate cardio and anaerobic training are needed. It should be accompanied by a significant alteration in the mode of life. Dietary habits and smoking hurt the state of the health of any person. In this regard, it is possible to outline the direct correlation between lifestyle and blood pressure.

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Supplements and their effects on health

Today, we could observe the increased popularity of fitness and the positive mode of life. Several people try to engage in this kind of activity and lead a healthy lifestyle. For this reason, the question of diet becomes very topical nowadays. The fact is that all elements are needed for the efficient functioning of a body a person obtains from food. However, several useful substances could be found in different products, and their quantities are low. In this regard, there are specific supplements in the market which could be used to assure that a sportsman obtains all needed minerals and elements. Besides, such supplements as creatine, omega three fatty acids, antioxidants, protein, and recovery drinks are well known today. Some people consume these and are sure that the positive effect will be achieved. For this reason, the increased level of interest in these supplements promoted numerous investigations of this aspect. For instance, credible research performed by an independent agency states that all the above-mentioned supplements could have a great positive effect on the state of a persons health and contribute to improved results. However, several aspects should be considered. First of all, these could not be considered a universal solution to all problems. They should be used as the substances that support an athlete and help him/her to shape the body and preserve the state of health. Moreover, it is essential to consume them by the appropriate scheme. Finally, it is crucial not to exceed measuring, or the results could be poor. It is possible to conclude that the popularity of these supplements is justified by modern science, and people consume them because of the positive effect they might have on the state of their health.

Physical activity for a diabetes patient

Today, diabetes remains a great problem that threatens several people all over the world. The fact is that disease becomes more and more prevalent, and many individuals belonging to different social groups suffer from it. Under these conditions, the information about this disease becomes an important factor that should be explored to struggle against it. A person should be able to determine the blood glucose on his/her own and analyze the results of the test.

Using a glucometer, I determined my blood glucose level. It is 90 mg/dl. It is within the normal range. It also means that the current mode of life along with dietary habits could be preserved as they contribute to the improvement of the state of my health and help me to avoid problems with blood sugar. As for a diabetic, it will also show that at the moment he/she manages to consume appropriate food and preserve the level of his/her blood sugar within the limit. It is very important for a person suffering from diabetes to monitor the level of blood sugar as in case it becomes too high, the state of his/her health will deteriorate.

This data should also be used in practice. Physical activity decreases the level of sugar in the blood as muscles consume glucose. That is why a person should visit a specialist to decrease the insulin dose. An athlete suffering from diabetes should measure the blood sugar level in a fasting state 30 minutes before physical exercises. This will help to determine important data and introduce the needed alterations to preserve his/her level of health. Only under these conditions, the positive results of training could be achieved.