This scenario presents a 49-year old patient with rheumatoid arthritis who visits the hospital with a primary complaint of fever. The patient is under medication with a prescription of prednisone 5 mg, and methotrexate 10 mg every Friday morning, and atorvastatin 40 mg. The patient who works at a large milling cooperative farm admits to having had chills with a high fever of about 100 degrees for about two weeks, chest pain associated with coughing and unusual fatigue. He agrees, having experienced random episodes of hemoptysis. After a far-reaching examination, he was diagnosed with Invasive aspergillosis (IA).
Invasive aspergillosis entails one of the top grounds for death among patients with severely immune-compromised systems. It is caused by a type of mold, fungus, obtained from the species of Aspergillus, which results in aspergillosis infection. Early diagnosis of the disease in its early stages is crucial to its management. Conservatively, the methods of diagnosing the condition are based on culture and histology utilization, which remains the pillar that anchors the diagnosis of IA. This study aims to develop a process that examines the health implications and care plan for the patient.
Symptoms and Diagnosis
Invasive aspergillosis is more likely to occur in individuals with a defective immune system. For instance, it is likely to occur in individuals with low levels of neutrophils or those receiving immunosuppressive drugs (Patterson et al., 2016). Therefore, treating diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, which uses immunosuppressive drugs, forms the basis for contracting Invasive Aspergillosis. IA causes lung infection, which is the main reason the patient exhibits symptoms like fever, cough, and chest pain (Jenks & Hoenigl, 2018). Similarly, aspergillosis spreads the infection to other body parts, such as the kidney and liver.
The infections of these vital organs cause the patient to manifest symptoms like fever, chills, and shocks. Rapid IA has significant harmful implications to the patient’s health in its advanced stages. It weakens the immune system in the body and causes the bleeding of the lungs hence creating difficulties in breathing (Patterson et al., 2016). It also leads to kidney and liver failure, and at this stage, death can occur quickly.
Genes That may be Associated With the Development of Invasive Aspergillosis
A significant susceptibility proportion of markers for IA are in genes implicated in the nuclear activation of the factor-kappa B signaling pathway (Mangani et al., 2017). Various studies and research advocate that genetic host polymorphisms within immune-associated genes may considerably add to the determination of the risk of contracting IA infections (Lupiañez et al., 2016). C-type lectins, toll-like receptors explicitly contain a single nucleotide polymorphism, and tumor necrosis factors, which are pathogen recognition receptors that frequently reach the climax in the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway (Lupiañez et al., 2016). Which may increase the patient’s risk of developing Invasive Aspergillosis. In keeping with Lupiañez et al. (2016)
The presence of shared genetic polymorphisms in ReIA, IRF4, NFkB1, and NFkB2 genes can influence the risk of developing IA, particularly in a high-risk population.
The Process of Immunosuppression and its Effects on Body Systems
Immunosuppression encompasses the process of purposefully administering drugs like FK506, azathioprine, cyclosporine, or corticosteroids to depress the immune system reaction in patients undertaking organ transplants (Mangani et al., 2017). During the process of immunosuppression, the glioma cells coordinate and arrange an immunosuppressive network that impairs the effector cells and reduces the efficiency of therapeutic schemes that aim to strengthen the immune response against tumors (Mangani et al., 2017). In other cases, immunosuppression may occur as a bad reaction to the treatment of various conditions. Remarkably, immunosuppression has enormous effects on the immune system since it limits the activation of the immune system to fight infections, exposing the patient to infectious diseases.
Invasive aspergillosis is a death-threatening disease that severely damages the most sensitive body organs. Therefore, to avoid this scenario, early diagnosis and treatment of the condition is key to sustaining life. Similarly, more harmonized treatment methods for conditions that require immunosuppression are necessary to meet future infection challenges.
Jenks, J. D., & Hoenigl, M. (2018). Treatment of aspergillosis. Journal of Fungi, 4(3), 98.
Lupiañez, C. B., Villaescusa, M. T., Carvalho, A., Springer, J., Lackner, M., Sánchez-Maldonado, J. M., & PCRAGA Study Group. (2016). Common genetic polymorphisms within NFκB-related genes and the risk of developing invasive aspergillosis. Frontiers in microbiology, 7, 1243.
Mangani, D., Weller, M., & Roth, P. (2017). The network of immunosuppressive pathways in glioblastoma. Biochemical pharmacology, 130, 1-9.
Patterson, T. F., Thompson III, G. R., Denning, D. W., Fishman, J. A., Hadley, S., Herbrecht, R., & Bennett, J. E. (2016). Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of aspergillosis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 63(4), e1-e60.